Article

Polyamine-mediated regulation of protein acetylation in murine skin and tumors

Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania 19096, USA.
Molecular Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 4.77). 08/2007; 46(8):611-7. DOI: 10.1002/mc.20350
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), resulting in increased polyamine metabolism, is a common feature of epithelial tumors. Polyamines play a complex role in promoting tumor development, affecting diverse cellular processes, including gene expression. One way polyamines may affect gene expression is to modulate the multiprotein complexes comprised of transcription factors and coregulatory factors that alter chromatin structure by acetylating/deacetylating nearby histones. We have capitalized on ODC-overexpressing cultured cells and K6/ODC and ODC/Ras transgenic mouse models, in which ODC overexpression is targeted to hair follicles, to evaluate the influence of polyamines on the acetylation of histones and other proteins. ODC overexpression was found to alter intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase activities and histone acetylation patterns. The high HAT activity exhibited by ODC transgenic mouse skin and tumors might be partly attributed to enhanced p300/creb-binding protein (CBP)-associated HAT activity and increased levels of Tat interactive protein, 60 kDa (Tip60) HAT protein isoforms. Altered association of Tip60 with E2F1 and a subset of newly identified Tip60-interacting transcription factors was detected in ODC mouse skin and tumors, implying novel polyamine modulation of Tip60-regulated gene expression. Polyamine effects on HAT enzymes also influence the acetylation status of nonhistone proteins. Overexpression of ODC in skin serves as a novel stimulus for acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein, p53--a target of both p300/CBP and Tip60--with concomitant increased binding to, and increased transcription of, a downstream target gene. The future challenge will be to elucidate the multiple mechanisms by which polyamines influence enzymes that regulate protein acetylation and gene transcription to promote cancer.

0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hairless (HR) is a nuclear protein with corepressor activity that is highly expressed in the skin and hair follicle. Mutations in Hairless lead to hair loss accompanied by the appearance of papules (atrichia with papular lesions), and similar phenotypes appear when the key polyamine enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N(1) -acetyltransferase (SSAT) are overexpressed. Both ODC and SSAT transgenic mice have elevated epidermal levels of putrescine, leading us to investigate the mechanistic link between putrescine and HR. We show here that HR and putrescine form a negative regulatory network, as epidermal ODC expression is elevated when HR is decreased and vice versa. We also show that the regulation of ODC by HR is dependent on the MYC superfamily of proteins, in particular MYC, MXI1 and MXD3. Furthermore, we found that elevated levels of putrescine lead to decreased HR expression, but that the SSAT-TG phenotype is distinct from that found when HR is mutated. Transcriptional microarray analysis of putrescine-treated primary human keratinocytes demonstrated differential regulation of genes involved in protein-protein interactions, nucleotide binding and transcription factor activity, suggesting that the putrescine-HR negative regulatory loop may have a large impact on epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle cycling.
    Experimental Dermatology 10/2013; 22(10):644-649. DOI:10.1111/exd.12228 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aliphatic polyamines are a family of polycationic molecules derived from decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine that classically comprise three molecules: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. In-cell polyamine homeostasis is tightly controlled at key steps of cell metabolism. Polyamines are involved in an array of cellular functions from DNA stabilization, and regulation of gene expression to ion channel function and, particularly, cell proliferation. As such, aliphatic polyamines play an essential role in rapidly dividing cells such as in the immune system and digestive tract. Because of their role in cell proliferation, polyamines are also involved in carcinogenesis, prompting intensive research into polyamine metabolism as a target in cancer therapy. More recently, another aliphatic polyamine, agmatine, the decarboxylated derivative of arginine, has been identified as a neurotransmitter in mammals, and investigations have focused on its effects in the CNS, notably as a neuroprotector in brain injury.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.09.019 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural polyamines are involved in many molecular processes, including maintenance of DNA structure and RNA processing and translation. Our aim here is to present an overview of the literature concerning the significance of polyamines in the modulation of chromatin arrangement and the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The pleiotropic picture emerging from the published data highlights that these polycations take part in apparently diverging effects, possibly depending on the heterogeneous experimental settings described, and on a methodological approach aimed at the evaluation of the global levels of the histone chemical modifications. Since the relevant changes observed appear to be rather local and gene specific, investigating histone modifications at the level of specific gene promoters of interest is thus to be recommended for future studies. Furthermore, decoding the multiple regulatory mechanisms by which polyamines exert their influence on chromatin-modifier enzymes will reasonably require focus on selected individual polyamine-regulated genes. The evaluation of the many known chromatin-remodeling enzymes for their individual susceptibility to polyamines or polyamine derivatives will also be helpful: determining how they discriminate between the different enzyme isoforms is expected to be a fruitful line of research for drug discovery, e.g., in cancer prevention and therapy. Indeed, polyamine derivatives acting as epigenetic modulators appear to be molecules with great potential as antitumor drugs. All these novel polyamine-based pharmacologically active molecules are thus promising tools, both as a stand-alone strategy and in combination with other anticancer compounds.
    Amino Acids 07/2013; 46(3). DOI:10.1007/s00726-013-1550-9 · 3.65 Impact Factor