Overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), resulting in increased polyamine metabolism, is a common feature of epithelial tumors. Polyamines play a complex role in promoting tumor development, affecting diverse cellular processes, including gene expression. One way polyamines may affect gene expression is to modulate the multiprotein complexes comprised of transcription factors and coregulatory factors that alter chromatin structure by acetylating/deacetylating nearby histones. We have capitalized on ODC-overexpressing cultured cells and K6/ODC and ODC/Ras transgenic mouse models, in which ODC overexpression is targeted to hair follicles, to evaluate the influence of polyamines on the acetylation of histones and other proteins. ODC overexpression was found to alter intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase activities and histone acetylation patterns. The high HAT activity exhibited by ODC transgenic mouse skin and tumors might be partly attributed to enhanced p300/creb-binding protein (CBP)-associated HAT activity and increased levels of Tat interactive protein, 60 kDa (Tip60) HAT protein isoforms. Altered association of Tip60 with E2F1 and a subset of newly identified Tip60-interacting transcription factors was detected in ODC mouse skin and tumors, implying novel polyamine modulation of Tip60-regulated gene expression. Polyamine effects on HAT enzymes also influence the acetylation status of nonhistone proteins. Overexpression of ODC in skin serves as a novel stimulus for acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein, p53--a target of both p300/CBP and Tip60--with concomitant increased binding to, and increased transcription of, a downstream target gene. The future challenge will be to elucidate the multiple mechanisms by which polyamines influence enzymes that regulate protein acetylation and gene transcription to promote cancer.
"Increased intracellular polyamines have been implicated in alterations in histone acetyltransferases and HDACs, potentially resulting in epigenetic changes that lead to the initiation and progression of tumours in a transgenic mouse model where ODC, the target of DFMO, is overexpressed [44–46]. Another previous report indicates that polyamine depletion by DFMO can induce differentiation in cardiac myocytes through epigenetic mechanisms . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic gene silencing is an important mechanism in the initiation and progression of cancer. Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) was the first enzyme identified to specifically demethylate H3K4 (Lys(4) of histone H3). Methylated H3K4 is an important mark associated with transcriptional activation. The flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is homologous with two polyamine oxidases, SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (N(1)-acetylpolyamine oxidase). We have demonstrated previously that long-chain polyamine analogues, the oligoamines, are inhibitors of LSD1. In the present paper we report the synergistic effects of specific oligoamines in combination with DFMO (2-difluoromethylornithine), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, in human colorectal cancer cells. DFMO treatment depletes natural polyamines and increases the uptake of exogenous polyamines. The combination of oligoamines and DFMO results in a synergistic re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes, including SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2), which encodes a Wnt signalling pathway antagonist and plays an anti-tumorigenic role in colorectal cancer. The treatment-induced re-expression of SFRP2 is associated with increased H3K4me2 (di-methyl H3K4) in the gene promoter. The combination of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamines and DFMO represents a novel approach to epigenetic therapy of cancer.
"That alterations in polyamine or polyamine analogue content can affect changes in chromatin has been well established. Gilmour and colleagues (Hobbs and Gilmour 2000; Hobbs et al. 2002; Hobbs et al. 2003; Hobbs et al. 2006; Wei et al. 2007) have demonstrated that changes in polyamines can lead to significant changes in chromatin acetylation. More importantly, the oligoamines have been shown to be potent inducers of nucleosomal array oligomerization (Carruthers et al. 2007), thus emphasizing their potential for direct effects on chromatin in addition to inhibition of LSD1. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant epigenetic repression of gene expression has been implicated in most cancers, including breast cancer. The nuclear amine oxidase, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has the ability to broadly repress gene expression by removing the activating mono- and di-methylation marks at the lysine 4 residue of histone 3 (H3K4me1 and me2). Additionally, LSD1 is highly expressed in estrogen receptor α negative (ER-) breast cancer cells. Since epigenetic marks are reversible, they make attractive therapeutic targets. Here we examine the effects of polyamine analog inhibitors of LSD1 on gene expression, with the goal of targeting LSD1 as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of breast cancer. Exposure of the ER-negative human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 to the LSD1 inhibitors, 2d or PG11144, significantly increases global H3K4me1 and H3K4me2, and alters gene expression. Array analysis indicated that 98 (75 up and 23 down) and 477 (237 up and 240 down) genes changed expression by at least 1.5-fold or greater after treatment with 2d and PG11144, respectively. The expression of 12 up-regulated genes by 2d and 14 up-regulated genes by PG11144 was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that up-regulated gene expression by polyamine analogs is associated with increase of the active histone marks H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K9act, and decrease of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, in the promoter regions of the relevant target genes. These data indicate that the pharmacologic inhibition of LSD1 can effectively alter gene expression and that this therapeutic strategy has potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esa1 (essential Sas2-related acetyltransferase 1) and Tip60 (HIV-1 TAT-interactive protein, 60 kDa) are key members of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and play important functions in many cellular processes. In this work, we designed, synthesized and evaluated a series of substrate-based analogs for the inhibition of Esa1 and Tip60. The structures of these analogs feature that coenzyme A is covalently linked to the side chain amino group of the acetyl lysine residues in the histone peptide substrates. These bisubstrate analogs exhibit stronger potency in the inhibition of Esa1 and Tip60 compared to the small molecules curcumin and anacardic acid. In particular, H4K16CoA was tested as one of the most potent inhibitors for both Esa1 and Tip60. These substrate-based analog inhibitors will be useful mechanistic tools for analyzing biochemical mechanisms of Esa1 and Tip60, defining their functional roles in particular biological pathways, and facilitating protein crystallization and structural determination.
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