Polich J. Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b

Cognitive Electrophysiology Laboratory, Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Clinical Neurophysiology (Impact Factor: 3.1). 11/2007; 118(10):2128-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2007.04.019
Source: PubMed


The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations.

  • Source
    • "According to Lavie [11], high load on " frontal " cognitive control processes increases distractor processing. Available attentional resources can be also examined at an electrophysiological level (i.e., brain reaction to visual and auditory stimuli), according to [8] [9] [10], reduced openness in an interference paradigm is associated with a lower P300 amplitude, an event related potential (ERP) associated with both cognitive and attentional processes [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Operating an aircraft is cognitively challenging: pilots have to control the plane and must remain responsive to potential verbal-auditory stimuli (e.g. Air Traffic Control Communication) and auditory alerts (e.g. Terrain Awareness and Warning System). Fifteen participants had to control an aircraft in order to target one of three differently-colored aircrafts displayed on a computer screen. The name of the color (written in black ink) corresponding to the aircraft to target was displayed in the center of the screen. Simultaneously with the onset of the written name of the color, a spoken color name distractor that participants had to ignore was played. This auditory distractor was either congruent (10%, spoken color name matched the written color) or incongruent (10%, spoken color name did not match the written color). The task difficulty varied in terms of working memory load with an n-back-like sub-task. In the low load condition, participants had to target the aircraft corresponding to the currently presented written instruction (n = 0). In the high load condition, participants had to target the aircraft corresponding to the instruction presented two trials before (n = 2). Behavioral analysis showed that increased mental workload provoked a decrease in piloting performance, i.e. participants tended to forget the correct instruction. On the physiological level, EEG/ERP measurements related to instructions showed that increased mental workload was accompanied by lower P3b amplitude. We assume that the lower P3b amplitude reflects the depletion of the cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the instructions. These results suggest that P3b can be a relevant indicator of the openness of the system to sudden and unexpected critical stimuli such as auditory alerts.
    Procedia Manufacturing; 12/2015
    • "The authors observed subtle behavioral deficits in impulsivity (behavioral inhibition), working memory, and cognitive flexibility, with increasing cognitive load. Furthermore, these deficits were accompanied by alterations in the ERP indices of visual attention (N1; Hillyard & Anllo-Vento, 1998), stimulus–response conflict/inhibition (N2; Nieuwenhuis, Yeung, Van Den Wildenberg, & Ridderinkhof, 2003), and attention (P3b; Polich, 2007), suggesting that alterations in neurocognitive processing may become more pervasive with increasing cognitive load. Together, these studies provide valuable information regarding the long-term outcomes of pediatric concussion and emphasize the utility of experimental and functional neurophysiological measures in pediatric concussion research. "

  • Source
    • "We argued that P3b amplitude may be modulated by task-related cognitive demands that drive attentional resource allocation, such that its amplitude is smaller when a task requires greater amounts of attentional resources (cf. Polich, 2007). Smaller amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b in the more informative conditions in Experiment 1 may therefore reflect that participants voluntarily (Kok, 2001) allocated more attentional resources to the task when planning a more informative gesture for their addressee, independent of whether they concurrently produced speech. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In everyday human communication, we often express our communicative intentions by manually pointing out referents in the material world around us to an addressee, often in tight synchronization with referential speech. This study investigated whether and how the kinematic form of index finger pointing gestures is shaped by the gesturer's communicative intentions and how this is modulated by the presence of concurrently produced speech. Furthermore, we explored the neural mechanisms underpinning the planning of communicative pointing gestures and speech. Two experiments were carried out in which participants pointed at referents for an addressee while the informativeness of their gestures and speech was varied. Kinematic and electrophysiological data were recorded online. It was found that participants prolonged the duration of the stroke and poststroke hold phase of their gesture to be more communicative, in particular when the gesture was carrying the main informational burden in their multimodal utterance. Frontal and P300 effects in the ERPs suggested the importance of intentional and modality-independent attentional mechanisms during the planning phase of informative pointing gestures. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between action, attention, intention, and language in the production of pointing gestures, a communicative act core to human interaction. ■
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12/2015; 27(12):2352-2368. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00865 · 4.09 Impact Factor
Show more