Macrophages mediate inflammation-enhanced metastasis of ovarian tumors in mice.
ABSTRACT The tumor microenvironment is known to have a profound effect on tumor progression in a highly context-specific manner. We have investigated whether peritoneal inflammation plays a causative role in ovarian tumor metastasis, a poorly understood process. Implantation of human ovarian tumor cells into the ovaries of severe combined immunodeficient mice resulted in peritoneal inflammation that corresponds temporally with tumor cell dissemination from the ovaries. Enhancement of the inflammatory response with thioglycolate accelerated the development of ascites and metastases. Suppression of inflammation with acetyl salicylic acid delayed ascites development and reduced tumor implant formation. A similar prometastatic effect for inflammation was observed when tumor cells were injected directly into the peritoneum of severe combined immunodeficient mice, and in a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model. Inflammation-modulating treatments did not affect primary tumor development or in vitro tumor cell growth. Depletion of peritoneal macrophages, but not neutrophils or natural killer cells, reduced tumor progression, as assessed by ascites formation and peritoneal metastasis. We conclude that inflammation facilitates ovarian tumor metastasis by a mechanism largely mediated by macrophages, and which may involve stromal vascular endothelial growth factor production. The confirmation of these findings in immunocompetent mice suggests relevance to human disease. Identifying the mechanisms by which macrophages contribute to tumor metastasis may facilitate the development of new therapies specifically targeting immune cell products in the tumor microenvironment.
Article: Elevation of sulfatides in ovarian cancer: an integrated transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis including tissue-imaging mass spectrometry.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sulfatides (ST) are a category of sulfated galactosylceramides (GalCer) that are elevated in many types of cancer including, possibly, ovarian cancer. Previous evidence for elevation of ST in ovarian cancer was based on a colorimetric reagent that does not provide structural details and can also react with other lipids. Therefore, this study utilized mass spectrometry for a structure-specific and quantitative analysis of the types, amounts, and tissue localization of ST in ovarian cancer, and combined these findings with analysis of mRNAs for the relevant enzymes of ST metabolism to explore possible mechanisms. Analysis of 12 ovarian tissues graded as histologically normal or having epithelial ovarian tumors by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI-MS/MS) established that most tumor-bearing tissues have higher amounts of ST. Because ovarian cancer tissues are comprised of many different cell types, histological tissue slices were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tissue-imaging MS (MALDI-TIMS). The regions where ST were detected by MALDI-TIMS overlapped with the ovarian epithelial carcinoma as identified by H & E staining and histological scoring. Furthermore, the structures for the most prevalent species observed via MALDI-TIMS (d18:1/C16:0-, d18:1/C24:1- and d18:1/C24:0-ST) were confirmed by MALDI-TIMS/MS, whereas, a neighboring ion(m/z 885.6) that was not tumor specific was identified as a phosphatidylinositol. Microarray analysis of mRNAs collected using laser capture microdissection revealed that expression of GalCer synthase and Gal3ST1 (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate:GalCer sulfotransferase) were approximately 11- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively, in the ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells versus normal ovarian stromal tissue, and they were 5- and 2.3-fold higher in comparison with normal surface ovarian epithelial cells, which is a likely explanation for the higher ST. This study combined transcriptomic and lipidomic approaches to establish that sulfatides are elevated in ovarian cancer and should be evaluated further as factors that might be important in ovarian cancer biology and, possibly, as biomarkers.Molecular Cancer 01/2010; 9:186. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages have established roles in tumor growth and metastasis, but information about their role in lung tumor promotion is limited. To assess the role of macrophages in lung tumorigenesis, we developed a method of minimally invasive, long-term macrophage depletion by repetitive intratracheal instillation of liposomal clodronate. Compared with controls treated with repetitive doses of PBS-containing liposomes, long-term macrophage depletion resulted in a marked reduction in tumor number and size at 4 mo after a single i.p. injection of the carcinogen urethane. After urethane treatment, lung macrophages developed increased M1 macrophage marker expression during the first 2-3 wk, followed by increased M2 marker expression by week 6. Using a strategy to reduce alveolar macrophages during tumor initiation and early promotion stages (weeks 1-2) or during late promotion and progression stages (weeks 4-16), we found significantly fewer and smaller lung tumors in both groups compared with controls. Late-stage macrophage depletion reduced VEGF expression and impaired vascular growth in tumors. In contrast, early-stage depletion of alveolar macrophages impaired urethane-induced NF-κB activation in the lungs and reduced the development of premalignant atypical adenomatous hyperplasia lesions at 6 wk after urethane injection. Together, these studies elucidate an important role for macrophages in lung tumor promotion and indicate that these cells have distinct roles during different stages of lung carcinogenesis.The Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 187(11):5703-11. · 5.79 Impact Factor