5-Azacytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, induces ATR-mediated DNA double-strand break responses, apoptosis, and synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin and bortezomib against multiple myeloma cells.
ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of 5-azacytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, against multiple myeloma (MM) cells, and characterized DNA damage-related mechanisms of cell death. 5-Azacytidine showed significant cytotoxicity against both conventional therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant MM cell lines, as well as multidrug-resistant patient-derived MM cells, with IC(50) of approximately 0.8-3 micromol/L. Conversely, 5-azacytidine was not cytotoxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells or patient-derived bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) at these doses. Importantly, 5-azacytidine overcame the survival and growth advantages conferred by exogenous interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), or by adherence of MM cells to BMSCs. 5-Azacytidine treatment induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) responses, as evidenced by H2AX, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylations, and apoptosis of MM cells. 5-Azacytidine-induced apoptosis was both caspase dependent and independent, with caspase 8 and caspase 9 cleavage; Mcl-1 cleavage; Bax, Puma, and Noxa up-regulation; as well as release of AIF and EndoG from the mitochondria. Finally, we show that 5-azacytidine-induced DNA DSB responses were mediated predominantly by ATR, and that doxorubicin, as well as bortezomib, synergistically enhanced 5-azacytidine-induced MM cell death. Taken together, these data provide the preclinical rationale for the clinical evaluation of 5-azacytidine, alone and in combination with doxorubicin and bortezomib, to improve patient outcome in MM.
- Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2012; 17(1):129. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are under investigation for the treatment of cancer, including the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma (MM). Evidence exists that DNA damage and repair contribute to the cytotoxicity mediated by the DNMTi decitabine. Here, we investigated the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by decitabine in MM using 4 human MM cell lines and the murine 5T33MM model. In addition, we explored how the HDACi JNJ-26481585 affects this DDR. Decitabine induced DNA damage (gamma-H2AX foci formation), followed by a G0/G1- or G2/M-phase arrest and caspase-mediated apoptosis. JNJ-26481585 enhanced the anti-MM effect of decitabine both in vitro and in vivo. As JNJ-26481585 did not enhance decitabine-mediated gamma-H2AX foci formation, we investigated the DNA repair response towards decitabine and/or JNJ-26481585. Decitabine augmented RAD51 foci formation (marker for homologous recombination (HR)) and/or 53BP1 foci formation (marker for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)). Interestingly, JNJ-26481585 negatively affected basal or decitabine-induced RAD51 foci formation. Finally, B02 (RAD51 inhibitor) enhanced decitabine-mediated apoptosis. Together, we report that decitabine-induced DNA damage stimulates HR and/or NHEJ. JNJ-26481585 negatively affects RAD51 foci formation, thereby providing an additional explanation for the combinatory effect between decitabine and JNJ-26481585.Oncotarget 03/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a monoclonal malignant plasma cell disorder with an apparent homogeneity as opposed to leukemia and lymphomas. The recent introduction of thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib has prolonged survival of patients with MM, and drug resistance or relapse of disease is perhaps still the major concern. Deregulation of hundreds of genes and multiple signaling pathways leads to MM pathogenesis and disease progression. While many of these genes and signaling pathways are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small 19-22 nucleotide single-stranded RNAs that either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes play an important role in the progression and pathogenesis of cancer. Among them, microRNA-21 (miR-21) is frequently up-regulated in many cancers. Recent studies have shown that miR-21 displays an important role in the occurrence, development, recurrence and drug resistance of MM. In this review, we aim at summarizing the current knowledge of miR-21 functions in MM, with an emphasis on its laboratory research and clinical research in MM.Medical Oncology 08/2014; 31(8):94. · 2.06 Impact Factor