Shanidar 10: A Middle Paleolithic immature distal lower limb from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan

Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 1114, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
Journal of Human Evolution (Impact Factor: 3.73). 09/2007; 53(2):213-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.04.003
Source: PubMed


The analysis of the faunal remains from Shanidar Cave has identified an incomplete immature human distal leg and foot from the deepest levels of the Middle Paleolithic of Shanidar Cave, Iraq. The distal tibia, fibula, first metatarsal, and two tarsals, designated Shanidar 10, derive from a 1-2-year-old infant. The tibia exhibits a transverse line from a stress episode during the last quarter of its first year postnatal. The cross-sectional geometry of the tibial midshaft reveals modest cortical thickening and a level of diaphyseal robusticity similar to those of recent human infants of a similar developmental age.

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Available from: Melinda Zeder, Dec 22, 2014
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    • "In sum, the Qafzeh 11 child represents, to our knowledge, the oldest documented human case of severe cranial trauma available from south-western Asia, dated to 90–100 kyrs BP. The adult Shanidar 1 skull exhibits an indisputable evidence of trauma, that was sometimes interpreted as a consequence of interpersonal violence [2], [50] but the specimen is probably more recent [51]. For Qafzeh 11, the exact circumstances surrounding the injury remain unknown, although this kind of injury generally results from a blunt force trauma. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Qafzeh site (Lower Galilee, Israel) has yielded the largest Levantine hominin collection from Middle Palaeolithic layers which were dated to circa 90-100 kyrs BP or to marine isotope stage 5b-c. Within the hominin sample, Qafzeh 11, circa 12-13 yrs old at death, presents a skull lesion previously attributed to a healed trauma. Three dimensional imaging methods allowed us to better explore this lesion which appeared as being a frontal bone depressed fracture, associated with brain damage. Furthermore the endocranial volume, smaller than expected for dental age, supports the hypothesis of a growth delay due to traumatic brain injury. This trauma did not affect the typical human brain morphology pattern of the right frontal and left occipital petalia. It is highly probable that this young individual suffered from personality and neurological troubles directly related to focal cerebral damage. Interestingly this young individual benefited of a unique funerary practice among the south-western Asian burials dated to Middle Palaeolithic.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102822. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102822 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This is corroborated by ESR age estimate of the Tabun materials (Gr€ un and Stringer, 2000; Coppa et al., 2005, 2007; Gr€ un et al., 2005). Although there are no radiometric dates available from the lower levels of Layer D at the Shanidar Cave, based on craniofacial configuration and depth of deposit, these specimens have been dated between OIS 4 and 6, and hence similar in age to those Neanderthal specimens from Layer B and C at Tabun (Cowgill et al., 2007). However , due to the geographical distance between Shanidar Cave and the Levantine region (almost 1,000 km), it seems unlikely that these human populations came into contact during the Middle Paleolithic. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans (AMHs) may have lived in close proximity in the Near East region during Middle Paleolithic times. Although functional morphological analyses suggest a marked behavioral contrast between these two human groups, new dental micro- and macro-wear studies, together with new archaeological data, have revealed some similarities in ecology and dietary habits. In this study, we analyze the tooth wear patterns of Neanderthals and AMH from Middle Paleolithic sites of Israel and Northern Iraq, using the Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis (OFA) method to virtually reconstruct the jaw movements responsible for the creation of the occlusal wear areas. We particularly focus on para-facets, a distinctive type of wear which has been previously described in the dentition of historic and modern hunter-gatherers. The analysis reveals a similarity in para-facet frequency between early Near Eastern Neanderthals and AMH, and a significant difference with other Pleistocene human groups. The absence of antagonist occlusal contacts in the lower teeth and the occlusal compass analysis suggest that para-facet formation is not related to normal mastication but to nonmasticatory activities. Thus, the identification of these nonmasticatory wear areas on the molars of early Near Eastern Neanderthals and AMH may indicate analogous tooth-tool uses for daily task activities. These may have emerged independently or could be interpreted as indirect evidence of cultural interactions between these two groups. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 09/2013; 152(1). DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22335 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Many of these lesions are minor developmental defects reflecting stress periods during development (e.g., dental enamel hypoplasias) or the scars of superficial traumatic lesions that impacted the underlying bone. These lesions may be notable for their commonness (Ogilvie et al., 1989; Berger and Trinkaus, 1995; Cowgill et al., 2007), even though the frequencies of the developmental lesions fall within recent human ranges of variation (Guatelli-Steinberg et al., 2004; Cowgill et al., 2007), but the Neandertals also appear to have sustained a number of more serious injuries and/or systemic abnormalities (Trinkaus, 1983, 1985; Duday and Arensburg, 1991; Crubézy and Trinkaus, 1992; Fennell and Trinkaus, 1997; Schultz, 2006). Given the dearth of individuals in the Neandertal sample that are likely to have lived to at least the fifth decade, their accumulation of such lesions may well provide insight into both their habitual stress levels and sociocultural means of surviving the insults sufficiently to leave diagnosable lesions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Kiik-Koba 1 Neandertal partial skeleton (canine, partial hands, partial leg, and feet), of a approximately 40-year-old probable male, exhibits a suite of pathological lesions, including hypercementosis, minor fibrous ossifications, pedal phalangeal fracture, and pronounced enthesopathies on the patella and calcanei in the context of no articular degenerations. The first two sets of lesions are related to age in the context of advanced dental attrition and physical strains. The third lesion joins a series of healed minor traumatic lesions among the Neandertals. The last represents either pronounced tendinous inflammation, albeit in the context of no articular degenerations, or a case of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in the Late Pleistocene. Kiik-Koba 1 therefore adds to the high incidence of pathological lesions among the Neandertals and, if a diagnosis of DISH is correct, to a high frequency of this disorder among older Neandertals.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 09/2008; 137(1):106-12. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.20833 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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