Ground-reaction-force (GRF) profiles of bipedal locomotion in bipedally trained Japanese macaques (performing monkeys) were analyzed in order to clarify the dynamic characteristics of their locomotion. Five trained and two ordinary monkeys participated in the experiment. They walked on a wooden walkway at a self-selected speed, and three components of the GRF vector were measured using a force platform. Our measurements reveal that trained monkeys exhibited vertical-GRF profiles that were single-peaked, similar to those of ordinary monkeys; they did not generate the double-peaked force curve that is seen in humans, despite their extensive training. However, in the trained monkeys, the peak appeared relatively earlier in the stance phase, and overall shape was more triangular than that of the more parabolic profile generated by ordinary monkeys. Comparisons of vertical fluctuation of the center of body mass calculated from the measured profiles suggest that this was larger in the trained monkeys, indicating that storage and release of potential energy actually took place in their bipedal walking. This energetic advantage seems limited, however, because efficient exchange of potential and kinetic energy during walking were not completely out of phase as in human walking. We suggest that anatomically restricted range of hip-joint motion impedes the inherently quadrupedal monkeys from generating humanlike bipedal locomotion, and that morphological rearrangement of the hip joint was an essential precondition for protohominids to acquire humanlike bipedalism.
"It is likely that the difference is due to load-carrying, although speed may be a factor. For example, researchers have found that in macaques trained for bipedal locomotion, an increase in speed was achieved by increasing stride length and reducing stride frequency, with a trend towards increased range of joint motion as speed increased (Hirasaki et al., 2004; Ogihara et al., 2007). On the other hand, macaques that were not trained to move bipedally moved at higher speeds via an increase in stride length, but with no changes in joint range of motion (Hirasaki et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the selective pressures that drove the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage may help inform researchers about the locomotor mode(s) of pre-hominin ancestors. Several selective pressures have been hypothesized, including the need to carry food, tools, or infants. Bearded capuchin monkeys are an excellent primate in which to examine the hypothesis that carrying supported the evolution of bipedalism because they are morphologically generalized and in some ways similar to Miocene hominoids, from which the transitional biped evolved. Additionally, bearded capuchins regularly move bipedally while carrying tools that represent a significant portion of their body mass. Here, we examined the spatio-temporal and kinematic gait parameters in a wild setting of Sapajus libidinosus moving bipedally while carrying a stone tool, as well as unloaded bipedal tufted capuchins in the lab. Results indicate that compared with humans, the monkeys move with a more bent-hip, bent-knee posture during both types of bipedalism, as expected. Few differences exist in spatio-temporal or kinematic parameters within species across load-carrying and unloaded bipedalism. The capuchin ankle, however, during load-carrying goes through a greater range of motion in relatively less time than both humans and unloaded capuchins. Data from this study provide the first quantitative data on bipedalism during load-carrying by wild primates in a natural setting. As such, they are a useful comparative reference for understanding bipedalism, particularly during load-carrying.
Journal of Human Evolution 11/2012; 63(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.10.002 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Setups that integrate both kinematics and morpho-functional investigations of a single sample constitute recent developments in the study of nonhuman primate bipedalisms. We introduce the integrated setup built at the Primatology Station of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), which allows analysis of both bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion in a population of 55–60 captive olive baboons. As a first comparison, we present the hind limb kinematics of both locomotor modalities in 10 individuals, focusing on the stance phase. The main results are: 1) differences in bipedal and quadrupedal kinematics at the hip, knee, and foot levels; 2) a variety of foot contacts to the ground, mainly of semiplantigrade type, but also of plantigrade type; 3) equal variations between bipedal and quadrupedal foot angles; 4) the kinematics of the foot joints act in coordinated and stereotyped manners, but are triggered differently according to whether the support is bipedal or quadrupedal. Although very occasionally realized, the bipedal walk of olive baboon appears to be a habitual and nonerratic locomotor modality.
International Journal of Primatology 04/2010; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s10764-010-9398-2 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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