The effect of actin disrupting agents on contact guidance of human embryonic stem cells.
ABSTRACT Mammalian cells respond to their substrates by complex changes in gene expression profiles, morphology, proliferation and migration. We report that substrate nanotopography alters morpohology and proliferation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Fibronectin-coated poly(di-methyl siloxane) substrates with line-grating (600nm ridges with 600nm spacing and 600+/-150nm feature height) induced hESC alignment and elongation, mediated the organization of cytoskeletal components including actin, vimentin, and alpha-tubulin, and reduced proliferation. Spatial polarization of gamma-tubulin complexes was also observed in response to nanotopography. Furthermore, the addition of actin disrupting agents attenuated the alignment and proliferative effects of nanotopography. These findings further demonstrate the importance of interplay between cytoskeleton and substrate interactions as a key modulator of morphological and proliferative cellular response in hESCs on nanotopography.
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ABSTRACT: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly and mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 p11.2. Although the physical and molecular genetic features of SMS are increasingly well understood, work is more limited on SMS's behavioral phenotype, which includes self-injury, tantrums, and sleep disturbance. This study examines the sleep behaviors of 39 individuals with SMS, ranging in age from 1.6 to 32 years (mean = 10.5). Prominent sleep problems, seen in 65 to 100% of the sample, included difficulties falling asleep, shortened sleep cycles, frequent and prolonged nocturnal awakenings, excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime napping, snoring, and bed-wetting. Medication to facilitate sleep was used by 59% of SMS subjects. Possible etiologic mechanisms of sleep disturbance in SMS are discussed, as are recommended interventions.American Journal of Medical Genetics 04/1998; 81(2):186-91.