Phase IIB multicenter trial of vorinostat in patients with persistent, progressive, or treatment refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
ABSTRACT To evaluate the activity and safety of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) in persistent, progressive, or recurrent mycosis fungoides or Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) cutaneous t-cell lymphoma (CTCL) subtypes.
Patients with stage IB-IVA MF/SS were treated with 400 mg of oral vorinostat daily until disease progression or intolerable toxicity in this open-label phase IIb trial (NCT00091559). Patients must have received at least two prior systemic therapies at least one of which included bexarotene unless intolerable. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR) measured by the modified severity weighted assessment tool and secondary end points were time to response (TTR), time to progression (TTP), duration of response (DOR), and pruritus relief ( > or = 3-point improvement on a 10-point visual analog scale). Safety and tolerability were also evaluated.
Seventy-four patients were enrolled, including 61 with at least stage IIB disease. The ORR was 29.7% overall; 29.5% in stage IIB or higher patients. Median TTR in stage IIB or higher patients was 56 days. Median DOR was not reached but estimated to be >or = 185 days (34+ to 441+). Median TTP was 4.9 months overall, and 9.8 months for stage IIB or higher responders. Overall, 32% of patients had pruritus relief. The most common drug-related adverse experiences (AE) were diarrhea (49%), fatigue (46%), nausea (43%), and anorexia (26%); most were grade 2 or lower but those grade 3 or higher included fatigue (5%), pulmonary embolism (5%), thrombocytopenia (5%), and nausea (4%). Eleven patients required dose modification and nine discontinued due to AE.
Oral vorinostat was effective in treatment refractory MF/SS with an acceptable safety profile.
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ABSTRACT: Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver, decreases intestinal iron absorption and macrophage iron release via effects on ferroportin. Bone morphogenic protein and Stat3 signaling regulate Hepcidin's transcription. Hepcidin is a potential drug target for patients with iron overload syndromes because its levels are inappropriately low in these individuals. To generate a tool for identifying small molecules that modulate Hepcidin expression, we stably transfected human hepatocytes (HepG2) cells with a reporter construct containing 2.7 kb of the human Hepcidin promoter upstream of a firefly reporter gene. We used high throughput methods to screen 10,169 chemicals in duplicate for their effect on Hepcidin expression and cell viability. Regulators were identified as chemicals that caused a change > 3 standard deviations above or > 1 standard deviation below the mean of the other chemicals (z-score > 3 or < 1), while not adversely affecting cell viability, quantified by fluorescence assay. Following validation assays, we identified 16 chemicals in a broad range of functional classes that promote Hepcidin expression. All of the chemicals identified increased expression of bone morphogenic protein-dependent and/or Stat3-dependent genes, however none of them strongly increased phosphorylation of Smad1,5,8 or Stat3.Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 12/2014; 53(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2014.06.002 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Imatinib (IM) represents a breakthrough in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by inhibiting the activity of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. However, many patients exhibit resistance to IM in the clinic. Recent studies have indicated that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC), plays an important role in leukemogenesis. In addition, some HDAC inhibitors are being tested to determine their anti-cancer activities in clinical trials. Divalproex sodium (DVPX), a first-line treatment for epilepsy, is also a HDAC inhibitor. However, it is unclear whether the anti-leukemic effects of IM in combination with DVPX on CML cells are related to SIRT1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IM in combination with DVPX on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in CML cells and to explore the underlying mechanisms. It was found that DVPX enhanced IM-induced cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in K562-S and K562-G cells. Surprisingly, the level of p-Bcr-Abl was similar in K562-S and K562-G cells. Moreover, IM combined with DVPX had no effects on the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl and its downstream target STAT5. Further study revealed that SIRT1 expression was higher in K562-G cells compared with K562-S cells. DVPX enhanced the inhibitory effect of IM on SIRT1 expression in K562-S and K562-G cells. Furthermore, knockdown of SIRT1 promoted apoptosis of K562-G cells treated with IM and DVPX. These results indicate that DVPX may increase the sensitivity of CML cells to IM and reverse IM resistance by regulating SIRT1 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Cancer Letters 10/2014; 356(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.10.033 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder characterised by the presence of a fusion oncogene BCR-ABL, which encodes a protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. The implementation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) marked a major advance in CML therapy, however there are problems with current treatment. For example, relapse occurs when these drugs are discontinued in the majority of patients who have achieved a complete molecular response (CMR) on TKI and these agents are less effective in patients with mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain. Importantly, TKI can effectively target proliferating mature cells, but do not eradicate quiescent leukaemic stem cells (LSC), therefore allowing disease persistence despite treatment. It is essential that alternative strategies are used to target the LSC population. BCR-ABL activation is responsible for the modulation of different signalling pathways, which allows the LSC fraction to evade cell death. Several pathways have been shown to be modulated by BCR-ABL, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK-STAT and autophagy signalling pathways. Targeting components of these survival pathways, alone or in combination with TKI, therefore represents an attractive potential therapeutic approach for targeting the LSC. However, many pathways are also active in normal stem cells. Therefore potential targets must be validated to effectively eradicate CML stem cells while sparing normal counterparts. This review summarises the main pathways modulated in CML stem cells, recent developments and the use of novel drugs to target components in these pathways which may be used to target the LSC population.British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2013; 169(8). DOI:10.1111/bph.12183 · 4.99 Impact Factor