Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence gene regulation.

Biology Department, Reed College, 3203 S.E. Woodstock Boulevard, Portland, OR 97202, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.16). 10/2007; 75(9):4199-210. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01927-06
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    ABSTRACT: The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is a 35.6 kb pathogenicity island inserted in the genome of some bacteria such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E.coli, Citrobacter rodentium, and Escherichia albertii. LEE comprises the genes responsible for causing attaching and effacing lesions, a characteristic lesion that involves intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes, a signaling cascade leading to brush border and microvilli destruction, and loss of ions, causing severe diarrhea. It is composed of 41 open reading frames and five major operons encoding a type three system apparatus, secreted proteins, an adhesin, called intimin, and its receptor called translocated intimin receptor (Tir). LEE is subjected to various levels of regulation, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators located both inside and outside of the pathogenicity island. Several molecules were described being related to feedback inhibition, transcriptional activation, and transcriptional repression. These molecules are involved in a complex network of regulation, including mechanisms such as quorum sensing and temporal control of LEE genes transcription and translation. In this mini review we have detailed the complex network that regulates transcription and expression of genes involved in this kind of lesion.
    BioMed Research International 2015:534738. DOI:10.1155/2015/534738 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans.
    Nature Communications 03/2015; 6:6592. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7592 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a major cause of infant diarrhoea in developing countries and a significant public health issue in industrialised countries. Currently there are no simple tests available for the diagnosis of EPEC. Serology of O-antigens is widely used routinely in many laboratories throughout the world, even though it has been known for many years to be an unreliable indicator of EPEC virulence. We have developed a simple, low-cost immunodiagnostic test based on the EspA filament, an essential virulence factor of EPEC and the related enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Using recombinant proteins of the five major variants of EspA as immunogens, we raised a panel of three monoclonal antibodies in mice that detects all variants of the native target in bacterial cultures. The antibodies proved suitable for application in sandwich-type assays, including ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay (LFI). Prototypes for both assays were specific for EPEC and EHEC strains when tested against a panel of control micro-organisms. We have also developed a simple, affordable culture medium, A/E medium, which optimises expression of EspA, allowing improved sensitivity of detection compared with standard Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Together these reagents form the basis of robust, informative tests for EPEC for use especially in developing countries but also for routine screening in any clinical laboratory.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 09/2014; 63(Pt 12). DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.076323-0 · 2.27 Impact Factor

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