Neurodegeneration involving putative respiratory neurons in Perry syndrome.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the potential involvement of ventral medullary neurons implicated in respiratory rhythmogenesis and chemosensitivity in a patient with Perry syndrome (autosomal dominant parkinsonism associated with depression, weight loss and central hypoventilation). Previous neuropathologic reports in Perry syndrome demonstrated neuronal loss in the substantia nigra with no or few Lewy bodies and no tau inclusions. Neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) of the ventrolateral medulla, identified by their immunoreactivity for neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1R), play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and serotonergic neurons in the medullary raphe in respiratory chemosensitivity, but their potential involvement in Perry syndrome has not yet been addressed. We conducted clinical and neuropathologic studies including immunohistochemistry examination in a new autopsied case clinically diagnosed as Perry syndrome. Our patient presented with parkinsonism at age 41. Subsequently, all cardinal features of Perry syndrome developed. He died of respiratory failure and sepsis at age 46. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed no significant pathology in the medulla. However, NK-1R, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrOH) immunoreactive neurons were significantly reduced in the ventrolateral medulla compared to controls. There was also loss of serotonergic neurons in the medullary raphe and ventral medullary surface. Severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, without alpha-synuclein or tau pathology but with loss of NK-1R and TH immunoreactive neurons in the ventrolateral medulla, and loss of serotonergic neurons in the medullary raphe and ventrolateral medulla may be a pathologic hallmark of Perry syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: To understand the neural origins of rhythmic behavior one must characterize the central pattern generator circuit and quantify the population size needed to sustain functionality. Breathing-related interneurons of the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) that putatively comprise the core respiratory rhythm generator in mammals are derived from Dbx1-expressing precursors. Here we show that selective photonic destruction of Dbx1 preBötC neurons in neonatal mouse slices impairs respiratory rhythm but surprisingly also the magnitude of motor output; respiratory hypoglossal nerve discharge decreased and its frequency steadily diminished until rhythm stopped irreversibly after 85±20 (mean ± SEM) cellular ablations, which corresponds to ~15% of the estimated population. These results demonstrate that a single canonical interneuron class generates respiratory rhythm and contributes in a premotor capacity, whereas these functions are normally attributed to discrete populations. We also establish quantitative cellular parameters that govern network viability, which may have ramifications for respiratory pathology in disease states.eLife Sciences 07/2014; DOI:10.7554/eLife.03427 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depression, parkinsonism, and hypoventilation (Perry syndrome) or familial motor neuron disease have been linked to mutations in dynactin P150(Glued) (DCTN1). We employed genealogic, clinical, neurologic, and MRI investigations, as well as analysis of genes implicated in parkinsonism. Cellular transfection, immunocytochemistry, and immunoprecipitation analysis of wild-type (WT) and mutant DCTN1 were also performed. A novel heterozygous mutation, DCTN1 c.156T>G, encoding p.Phe52Leu, segregates with parkinsonism in a Japanese family. The substitution was not observed in affected probands with familial parkinsonism or control subjects and is evolutionarily conserved. In contrast to Perry syndrome, affected carriers have late-onset disease and slower progression, with frontotemporal atrophy revealed by MRI. In vitro studies suggest the mutant protein has impaired microtubule binding, compared to WT dynactin p150(Glued) . DCTN1 mutations may contribute to disparate neurodegenerative diagnoses, including familial motor neuron disease, parkinsonism, and frontotemporal atrophy, and further studies of dynactin-mediated cargo transport may prove insightful. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.Movement Disorders 08/2014; 29(9). DOI:10.1002/mds.25833 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionWe used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess dopaminergic and serotonergic terminal density in three subjects carrying a mutation in the DCT1 gene, two clinically affected with Perry syndrome.Methods All subjects had brain imaging using 18F-6-fluoro-l-dopa (FDOPA, dopamine synthesis and storage), (+)-11C-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2), and 11C-raclopride (RAC, dopamine D2/D3 receptors). One subject also underwent PET with 11C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile (DASB, serotonin transporter).ResultsFDOPA-PET and DTBZ-PET in the affected individuals showed a reduction of striatal tracer uptake. Also, RAC-PET showed higher uptake in these area. DASB-PET showed significant uptake changes in left orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left caudate, and left ventral striatum.Conclusions Our data showed evidence of both striatal dopaminergic and widespread cortical/subcortical serotonergic dysfunctions in individuals carrying a mutation in the DCTN1 gene. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder SocietyMovement Disorders 08/2014; 29(9). DOI:10.1002/mds.25893 · 5.63 Impact Factor