F2L, a peptide derived from heme-binding protein, inhibits formyl peptide receptor-mediated signaling.
ABSTRACT F2L is an acetylated amino-terminal peptide derived from the cleavage of the human heme-binding protein. Very recently, F2L was identified as an endogenous chemoattractant peptide acting specifically through formyl peptide receptor-like (FPRL)2. In the present study, we report that F2L stimulates chemotactic migration in human neutrophils. However, F2L inhibits formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and FPRL1 activities, resulting in the complete inhibition of intracellular calcium increases, and superoxide generation induced by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, MMK-1, or Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-d-Met (WKYMVm) in human neutrophils. In terms of the inhibitory role of F2L on FPR- and FPRL-mediated signaling, we found that F2L competitively inhibits the binding of (125)I-WKYMVm to its specific receptors, FPR and FPRL1. F2L is the first endogenous molecule that inhibits FPR- and FPRL1-mediated signaling, and is expected to be useful in the study of FPR and FPRL1 signaling and in the development of drugs to treat diseases involving the FPR family of receptors.
- SourceAvailable from: Omid Fatemi[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spinorphin is an endogenous heptapeptide (leucylvalylvalyltyrosylprolyltryptophylthreonine), first isolated from bovine spinal cord, whose sequence matches a conserved region of beta-hemoglobin. Also referred to as LVV-hemorphin-4 and a member of the nonclassical opioid hemorphin family, spinorphin inhibits enkephalin-degrading enzymes and is analgesic. Recently, spinorphin was reported to block neutrophil activation induced by the chemotactic N-formylpeptide N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLF), suggesting a potential role as an endogenous negative regulator of inflammation. Here we use both gain- and loss-of-function genetic tests to identify the specific mechanism of spinorphin action on neutrophils. Spinorphin induced calcium flux in normal mouse neutrophils, but was inactive in neutrophils from mice genetically deficient in the fMLF receptor subtype FPR (N-formylpeptide receptor). Consistent with this, spinorphin induced calcium flux in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with mouse FPR, but had no effect on cells expressing the closely related fMLF receptor subtype FPR2. Despite acting as a calcium-mobilizing agonist at FPR, spinorphin was a weak chemotactic agonist and effectively blocked neutrophil chemotaxis induced by fMLF at concentrations selective for FPR. Spinorphin did not affect mouse neutrophil chemotaxis induced by concentrations of fMLF that selectively activate FPR2. Thus, spinorphin blocks fMLF-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by acting as a specific antagonist at the fMLF receptor subtype FPR.The Journal of Immunology 01/2002; 167(11):6609-14. · 5.52 Impact Factor
- Biochemistry 06/1980; 19(11):2404-10. · 3.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Superoxide is the most important armory on the primary defense line of monocytes against invading pathogens, and the identification of new stimuli and the characterization of the regulatory mechanism of superoxide generation are of paramount importance. In this study, we identified 3 novel peptides by screening a synthetic hexapeptide combinatorial library and modification of 1 of the peptides. The isolated peptides that can induce superoxide generation in human monocytes are His-Phe-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Met-CONH(2) (HFYLPM), Met-Phe-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Met-CONH(2) (MFYLPM), and His-Phe-Tyr-Leu-Pro-D-Met-CONH(2) (HFYLPm). All 3 peptides also caused intracellular calcium ([Ca(++)](i)) rise. We tested the specificities of the peptides on cells of different origin by looking at [Ca(++)](i) rise. All 3 peptides acted specifically on leukocytes and not on nonimmune cells. Among leukocytes, HL60 and Jurkat T cells were stimulated specifically by MFYLPM or HFYLPM, respectively. As a physiologic characteristic of the peptides, we observed that all 3 peptides induced chemotactic migration of monocytes. Studying receptor specificity, we concluded that the 3 peptides might act on some shared and some distinct receptor(s) on leukocytes. Studying intracellular signaling set in motion by the peptides revealed that HFYLPM, but not MFYLPM or HFYLPm, induced chemotaxis via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and protein kinase C. Because HFYLPM, MFYLPM, and HFYLPm not only exhibit different specificities depending on cell type and status of differentiation but also stimulate cells via distinct receptors and signaling, the 3 novel peptides might be useful tools to study leukocyte activation.Blood 06/2001; 97(9):2854-62. · 9.06 Impact Factor