IL-15 is required for sustained lymphopenia-driven proliferation and accumulation of CD8 T cells.
ABSTRACT Naive T cells undergo slow homeostatic proliferation in response to T cell lymphopenia, which is also called lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP). IL-7 is critically required for this process, but previous studies suggested IL-15 was expendable for LIP of naive CD8 T cells. In contrast, we show that IL-15 is important for sustained CD8 T cell proliferation and accumulation in a lymphopenic setting, as revealed by truncated LIP in IL-15(-/-) hosts. At the same time, we find that IL-12 enhances LIP by acting directly on the CD8 T cells and independently of IL-15, suggesting distinct pathways by which cytokines can regulate homeostatic proliferation. Interestingly, the memory-phenotype CD8 T cell generated by LIP in IL-15(-/-) hosts are phenotypically distinct from the rare endogenous memory-phenotype cells found in IL-15(-/-) animals, suggesting these cells are generated by different means. These findings demonstrate that cytokine requirements for LIP change during the process itself, illustrating the need to identify factors that regulate successive stages of lymphopenia-driven proliferation.
Article: Novel strategies for immunotherapy in multiple myeloma: previous experience and future directions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a life-threatening haematological malignancy for which standard therapy is inadequate. Autologous stem cell transplantation is a relatively effective treatment, but residual malignant sites may cause relapse. Allogeneic transplantation may result in durable responses due to antitumour immunity mediated by donor lymphocytes. However, morbidity and mortality related to graft-versus-host disease remain a challenge. Recent advances in understanding the interaction between the immune system of the patient and the malignant cells are influencing the design of clinically more efficient study protocols for MM. Cellular immunotherapy using specific antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to overcome aspects of immune incompetence in MM patients, has received great attention, and numerous clinical trials have evaluated the potential for dendritic cell (DC) vaccines as a novel immunotherapeutic approach. This paper will summarize the data investigating aspects of immunity concerning MM, immunotherapy for patients with MM, and strategies, on the way, to target the plasma cell more selectively. We also include the MM antigens and their specific antibodies that are of potential use for MM humoral immunotherapy, because they have demonstrated the most promising preclinical results.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2012; 2012:753407. · 1.84 Impact Factor
Article: TGF-β sensitivity restrains CD8+ T cell homeostatic proliferation by enforcing sensitivity to IL-7 and IL-15.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The pleiotropic cytokine TGF-β has been implicated in the regulation of numerous aspects of the immune response, including naïve T cell homeostasis. Previous studies found that impairing TGF-β responsiveness (through expression of a dominant-negative TGF-β RII [DNRII] transgene) leads to accumulation of memory phenotype CD8 T cells, and it was proposed that this resulted from enhanced IL-15 sensitivity. Here we show naïve DNRII CD8 T cells exhibit enhanced lymphopenia-driven proliferation and generation of "homeostatic" memory cells. However, this enhanced response occurred in the absence of IL-15 and, unexpectedly, even in the combined absence of IL-7 and IL-15, which were thought essential for CD8 T cell homeostatic expansion. DNRII transgenic CD8 T cells still require access to self Class I MHC for homeostatic proliferation, arguing against generalized dysregulation of homeostatic cues. These findings suggest TGF-β responsiveness is critical for enforcing sensitivity to homeostatic cytokines that limit maintenance and composition of the CD8 T cell pool. (154 words).PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42268. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: A novel clinically relevant strategy to abrogate autoimmunity and regulate alloimmunity in NOD mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate a new clinically relevant immunoregulatory strategy based on treatment with murine Thymoglobulin mATG Genzyme and CTLA4-Ig in NOD mice to prevent allo- and autoimmune activation using a stringent model of islet transplantation and diabetes reversal. Using allogeneic islet transplantation models as well as NOD mice with recent onset type 1 diabetes, we addressed the therapeutic efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms associated with a new immunoregulatory protocol based on prolonged low-dose mATG plus CTLA4-Ig. BALB/c islets transplanted into hyperglycemic NOD mice under prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment showed a pronounced delay in allograft rejection compared with untreated mice (mean survival time: 54 vs. 8 days, P < 0.0001). Immunologic analysis of mice receiving transplants revealed a complete abrogation of autoimmune responses and severe downregulation of alloimmunity in response to treatment. The striking effect on autoimmunity was confirmed by 100% diabetes reversal in newly hyperglycemic NOD mice and 100% indefinite survival of syngeneic islet transplantation (NOD.SCID into NOD mice). The capacity to regulate alloimmunity and to abrogate the autoimmune response in NOD mice in different settings confirmed that prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment is a clinically relevant strategy to translate to humans with type 1 diabetes.Diabetes 09/2010; 59(9):2253-64. · 8.29 Impact Factor