[Painful hyperexcitability syndrome with oxaliplatin containing chemotherapy. Clinical features, pathophysiology and therapeutic options].
ABSTRACT The platinum derivative oxaliplatin is widely used in colorectal cancer. Its side effects differ from those of the other platinum compounds cisplatin and carboplatin. An acute, painful hyperexcitability syndrome (HES) accompanied by cold induced paresthesia, dysesthesia and myotonia is unique to oxaliplatin, whereas a chronic, peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN) can be caused by all platinum compounds. It is believed that HES is the result of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability as a consequence of voltage-gated sodium channel dysfunction, which may be caused by calcium level imbalance. Therapeutic options for HES are the administration of calcium and magnesium, the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine and the thiophosphate amifostine.
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ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is active in colorectal cancer. Sensory neurotoxicity is its dose-limiting toxicity. It may come from an effect on neuronal voltage-gated Na channels, via the liberation one its metabolite, oxalate. We decided to use Ca and Mg as oxalate chelators. A retrospective cohort of 161 patients treated with oxaliplatin + 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for advanced colorectal cancer, with three regimens of oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)/2w, 100/2w, 130/3w) was identified. Ninety-six patients received infusions of Ca gluconate and Mg sulfate (1 g) before and after oxaliplatin (Ca/Mg group) and 65 did not. Only 4% of patients withdrew for neurotoxicity in the Ca/Mg group versus 31% in the control group (P = 0.000003). The tumor response rate was similar in both groups. The percentage of patients with grade 3 distal paresthesia was lower in Ca/Mg group (7 versus 26%, P = 0.001). Acute symptoms such as distal and lingual paresthesia were much less frequent and severe (P = 10(-7)), and pseudolaryngospasm was never reported in Ca/Mg group. At the end of the treatment, 20% of patients in Ca/Mg group had neuropathy versus 45% (P = 0.003). Patients with grade 2 and 3 at the end of the treatment in the 85 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin group recovered significantly more rapidly from neuropathy than patients without Ca/Mg. Ca/Mg infusions seem to reduce incidence and intensity of acute oxaliplatin-induced symptoms and might delay cumulative neuropathy, especially in 85 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin dosage.Clinical Cancer Research 07/2004; 10(12 Pt 1):4055-61. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A significant increase in the dose intensity of chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines and platinum complexes has resulted from selective circadian timing and/or circadian modulation of the infusion rate. The relevance of such chronopharmacologic strategy for improving the outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer was evaluated in an extended Phase II clinical trial involving 93 patients. Of these, 49% previously had received chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 700 mg/m2/d) and folinic acid (FA, 300 mg/m2/d) combined with oxaliplatin (l-OHP, a nonnephrotoxic platinum complex, 25 mg/m2/d) were infused continuously for 5 days every 3 weeks. In a pilot randomized study, the infusion of all three drugs at a constant rate resulted in World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3 or 4 toxicity in all four patients compared with no such toxicity in four patients if the infusion rate was modulated according to circadian rhythms. In this Phase II trial, drug delivery was modulated sinusoidally over the 24-hour day with peak flow rates at 4 AM for 5-FU and FA and at 4 PM for l-OHP, using an ambulatory programmable-in-time pump. All patients and 784 of 839 courses (93%) were evaluable for toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicities (WHO Grade 2 to 4) included diarrhea (19% of courses) and vomiting (35% of courses). In addition, WHO Grade 2 to 4 hematologic or mucosal toxicity, respectively, occurred in 2.5% and 7% of courses. Two toxic deaths were encountered. Peripheral sensory neuropathy led to discontinuation of l-OHP in 14 patients after 7 to 12 courses; it completely disappeared within 3 months. Fifty-four of the 93 patients had an objective response (58%; 95% confidence limits, 48% to 68%), irrespective of previous treatment or prior documented progression while receiving standard chemotherapy with 5-FU and FA or continuous 5-FU. Complete responses (CR) were seen in 6 patients (4 of which were proved histologically) and, after surgery, in 12 additional patients (overall CR rate, 18 of 93 [19%]; 95% confidence limits, 11% to 27%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were, respectively, 10 and 15 months, irrespective of prior therapy. Both PFS and survival were significantly longer in patients with a good performance status (PS, 0 or 1, by WHO criteria; respectively, 12 and 21 months) than in patients with poor PS (respectively, 8 and 10 months; P less than 0.01, by log-rank test). This chronopharmacologic protocol may have circumvented, to some extent, both the natural and acquired resistance of colorectal cancer to chemotherapy.Cancer 03/1992; 69(4):893-900. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear, although in vitro studies suggest involvement of voltage-gated Na+ channels. In the present study, clinical assessment was combined with nerve conduction studies (NCS) and nerve excitability studies in 16 patients after completion of oxaliplatin therapy. Chronic neuropathic symptoms persisted in 50% of patients. NCS confirmed abnormalities in symptomatic patients: sensory potentials were significantly low, whereas motor studies remained essentially normal. At 12-month follow-up of symptomatic patients, positive sensory symptoms improved but NCS abnormalities persisted. Cumulative oxaliplatin dose was a predictor of neuropathy, and long-term effects appeared to be minimized by low single-infusion dosages. Nerve excitability measures in symptomatic patients established that axons were of high threshold. Refractoriness was significantly greater in patients (symptomatic group, 56.3 +/- 24.9%; entire patient group, 46.3 +/- 12.5%; controls, 27.1 +/- 1.9%; P < 0.05). Thus, although positive sensory symptoms of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy improved, negative sensory symptoms and abnormalities of sensory nerve conduction persisted. Differences in nerve excitability measures, particularly refractoriness, support in vitro studies indicating involvement of voltage-gated transient Na+-channel dysfunction in the development of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity.Muscle & Nerve 08/2005; 32(1):51-60. · 2.31 Impact Factor