A Mitochondrial Protein, Bit1, Mediates Apoptosis Regulated by Integrins and Groucho/TLE Corepressors
ABSTRACT A delicate balance of signals regulates cell survival. One set of these signals is derived from integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Loss of cell attachment to the ECM causes apoptosis, a process known as anoikis. In searching for proteins involved in cell adhesion-dependent regulation of anoikis, we identified Bit1, a mitochondrial protein that is released into the cytoplasm during apoptosis. Cytoplasmic Bit1 forms a complex with AES, a small Groucho/transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE) protein, and induces cell death with characteristics of caspase-independent apoptosis. Cell attachment to fibronectin counteracts the apoptotic effect of Bit1 and AES. Increasing Bit1 expression enhances anoikis, while suppressing the expression reduces it. Thus, we have elucidated an integrin-controlled pathway that is, at least in part, responsible for the cell survival effects of cell-ECM interactions.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Surgical resection, postoperative radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. In the past decade, efforts have been made to decipher genomic and core pathway alterations to identify clinically relevant glioblastoma subtypes. Based on these studies and more academic explorations, new potential therapeutic targets were found and several targeting agents were developed. Such molecules should hopefully overcome the resistance of glioblastoma to the current therapy. One of the hallmarks of glioblastoma subtypes was the enrichment of extracellular matrix/invasion-related genes. Integrins, which are cell adhesion molecules important in glioma cell migration/invasion and angiogenesis were one of those genes. Integrins seem to be pertinent therapeutic targets and antagonists recently reached the clinic. Although the p53 pathway appears often altered in glioblastoma, conflicting results can be found in the literature about the clinically relevant impact of the p53 status in the resistance to TMZ. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge on (1) integrin expression, (2) p53 status, and (3) relationship between integrins and p53 to discuss their potential impact on the resistance of glioblastoma to temozolomide.Frontiers in Oncology 10/2012; 2:157. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00157
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ABSTRACT: Translocations of regulator proteins from or to the mitochondria are key events in apoptosis regulation. NOA36/ZNF330 is a highly evolutionary conserved protein with a characteristic cystein-rich domain. In this work we address its mitochondrial localization and we demonstrate that a blockage of endogenous NOA36/ZNF330 expression by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced apoptotic response to etoposide (ETO), camptothecin (CPT) and staurosporine (STS) but not to CH11 anti-Fas antibody or tumour-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HeLa cells. In contrast, when ectopically expressed in the cytoplasm, NOA36/ZNF330 induces apoptotic cell death. We also found that the domain responsible for this proapoptotic activity is located its cystein-rich region. We propose that NOA36/ZNF330 is translocated from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm when apoptosis is induced and that it contributes to cytochrome c release.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2009; 1793(12):1876-85. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.10.011 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The solution structure of protein AF2095 from the thermophilic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis, a 123-residue (13.6-kDa) protein, has been determined by NMR methods. The structure of AF2095 is comprised of four α-helices and a mixed β-sheet consisting of four parallel and anti-parallel β-strands, where the α-helices sandwich the β-sheet. Sequence and structural comparison of AF2095 with proteins from Homo sapiens, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, and Sulfolobus solfataricus reveals that AF2095 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2). This structural comparison also identifies putative catalytic residues and a tRNA interaction region for AF2095. The structure of AF2095 is also similar to the structure of protein TA0108 from archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum, which is deposited in the Protein Data Bank but not functionally annotated. The NMR structure of AF2095 has been further leveraged to obtain good-quality structural models for 55 other proteins. Although earlier studies have proposed that the Pth2 protein family is restricted to archeal and eukaryotic organisms, the similarity of the AF2095 structure to human Pth2, the conservation of key active-site residues, and the good quality of the resulting homology models demonstrate a large family of homologous Pth2 proteins that are conserved in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial organisms, providing novel insights in the evolution of the Pth and Pth2 enzyme families.Protein Science 12/2008; 14(11):2849 - 2861. DOI:10.1110/ps.051666705 · 2.86 Impact Factor