Validation of primary epitheloid cell cultures isolated from bovine placental caruncles and cotyledons.
ABSTRACT In order to study feto-maternal interactions in the bovine synepitheliochorial placenta primary cell cultures of both placentomal components throughout pregnancy, namely caruncular epithelial cells and trophoblast cells were developed. The aim of this study was to validate and improve a method to culture caruncular epithelial cells and fetal trophoblast from manually separated placentomes. Prior to seeding the presence of fetal cells in caruncular samples and vice-versa could be demonstrated by the detection of the Y-chromosome via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provided the fetus was male. Epitheloid shaped cells present in both cultures (cotyledon and caruncle) were characterized on a morphological basis as well as by immunofluorescence and Western blot thereby detecting cytokeratin, zonula occludens-1 and vimentin but not alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin. The absence of the Y-chromosome demonstrated the caruncular origin of epitheloid cells. In addition, a population of polygonally shaped cells derived from the cotyledon was propagated and displayed the same cytoskeletal characteristics as described above. The presence of the Y-chromosome confirmed the fetal origin of these cells and the lacking uptake of fluorescence conjugated low density lipoprotein, specific for endothelial cells, identified polygonally shaped cells as fetal trophoblast cells. In conclusion, the cross-contamination of maternal and fetal cells in manually separated placentomes should be considered in future experiments as it may lead to false positive results dependent on the sensitivity of the method applied. This study highlights the importance of an appropriate cell characterization and identification, especially when isolating primary cells.
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ABSTRACT: Low developmental competence of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is a universal problem. Abnormal placentation has been commonly reported in SCNT pregnancies from a number of species. The present study employed Affymetrix bovine expression microarrays to examine global gene expression patterns of SCNT and in vivo produced (AI) blastocysts as well as cotyledons from day-70 SCNT and AI pregnancies. SCNT and AI embryos and cotyledons were analyzed for differential expression. Also in an attempt to establish a link between abnormal gene expression patterns in early embryos and cotyledons, differentially expressed genes were compared between the two studies. Microarray analysis yielded a list of 28 genes differentially expressed between SCNT and AI blastocysts and 19 differentially expressed cotyledon genes. None of the differentially expressed genes were common to both groups, although major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) was significant in the embryo data and approached significance in the cotyledon data. This is the first study to report global gene expression patterns in bovine AI and SCNT cotyledons. The embryonic gene expression data reported here adds to a growing body of data that indicates the common occurrence of aberrant gene expression in early SCNT embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 76: 471–482, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Molecular Reproduction and Development 04/2009; 76(5):471 - 482. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Placental trophoblasts are an important source of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine acting hormones. The aim of the present study was to establish and evaluate a tissue culture model for bovine trophoblasts to study regulation of key genes of steroid hormone synthesis. Trophoblast cells were isolated from cotyledons by collagenase disaggregation and subsequent percoll density gradient centrifugation. The cells were seeded on collagen coated dishes and incubated for up to seven days. The cells were characterized for the presence of mesenchymal vimentin and epithelial cytokeratin filaments and for Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) binding, a marker for differentiated trophoblast giant cells. Transcripts of Hsd3b, Cyp17 and Cyp19 encoding 3beta-HSD, P450c17 and P450arom, the key enzymes of progesterone, androgen, and oestrogen biosynthesis, respectively, and of Csh1 encoding the trophoblast-specific hormone placental lactogen (PL) were measured by qPCR. Uninucleate cotyledonary epithelial cells and bi- and trinucleate trophoblast giant cells efficiently formed a dense cell layer on the collagen coated dishes within 24 h. Bi- and trinucleate cells showed DBA binding and weak or undetectable cytokeratin immunoreactivity. Vimentin-positive, fibroblast-like cells were found on top of this cell layer. Cyp19 transcripts were found in freshly dissociated but not in cultured cells. Cyp17 expression continuously increased, Hsd3b transcripts largely and rapidly increased during the first days in culture, followed by a decline after three days, whereas Csh1 decreased towards day seven. Serum free culture conditions significantly enhanced Cyp17 and Csh1 but not Hsd3b expression. The data indicate that collagen is a favourable substrate for cultured binucleate trophoblast giant cells. The cells represent an in vitro model to study the regulation of key genes of placental progesterone and androgen but not of oestrogen biosynthesis.Placenta 07/2008; 29(6):531-8. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the bovine placenta, multinucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC), evolving from uninucleate trophoblast cells, are crucial for feto-maternal interaction as they show endocrine activity and the ability to migrate and fuse with caruncular epithelial cells. In contrast to caruncular epithelial cells, the isolation and culture of bovine trophoblast cells is complicated because they cease to express their specific products, like placental lactogen (PL), during prolonged culture. In the present study, we aimed to establish a bovine cotyledonary trophoblast cell line targeting our long term goal to develop an in vitro model for the bovine placenta. Therefore, the functional activity of important signalling pathways was tested. Primary trophoblast cells were isolated from a bovine cotyledon of a male fetus and successfully subcultured and cryopreserved. The obtained cell line, termed F3, showed epithelial morphology and characteristic binuclear giant cells in small numbers through all passages. The trophoblastic origin of F3 cells was verified by amplification of a Y-chromosome specific DNA-sequence and the presence of PL mRNA. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that F3 cells were continuously positive for zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2), cytokeratin and vimentin, whereas they expressed the TGC specific marker PL only in the first two passages. F3 cell growth was accelerated in medium supplied with epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF-stimulated proliferation was mediated through activation of Ras and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 42 and 44. In conclusion, the F3 cell line shows several in vivo characteristics of bovine cotyledonary trophoblast cells. The response to EGF stimulation indicates that EGF plays a role during bovine placentation, and illustrated that F3 cells may provide a valuable tool for further mechanistic studies elucidating the feto-maternal interplay.Placenta 11/2009; 31(1):67-74. · 3.12 Impact Factor