Imaging performance of widefield solid immersion lens microscopy

Applied Optics Group, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.
Applied Optics (Impact Factor: 1.78). 08/2007; 46(20):4202-8. DOI: 10.1364/AO.46.004202
Source: PubMed


We investigate the performance of a widefield imaging system employing an aplanatic solid immersion lens. Off-axis imaging quality is examined theoretically at different radii and thicknesses of the aplanatic solid immersion lens. It is found that field curvature is the major aberration affecting the imaging quality. Aberrations are measured experimentally, and the results are in very good agreement with those obtained from simulations and demonstrate the situations where high quality images can be obtained with the aplanatic solid immersion lens.

13 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Twyman-Green (TG) interferometer is widely used to evaluate optical imaging systems. It consists of an object wave and a reference wave for creating an interferogram. In this paper, we propose a simple interferometer that eliminates the actual reference wave. Instead of the piezoelectric trasnducer mirror used in the reference wave, a virtual optics was used via a numerical simulation of plane-wave illumination. A solid immersion lens of NA = 1.84 is described and fabricated for evaluating an interferogram. To verify the proposed method, the resulting interferogram with the aberration analysis was compared with those obtained using a conventional TG interferometer. The total wavefront aberration value was measured about 21 mĪ»RMS and the difference between the conventional and proposed methods was approximately 3 %. Phase-shifting interferometry without mechanical and optical disturbances was demonstrated.
    Microsystem Technologies 09/2013; 19(9-10). DOI:10.1007/s00542-013-1845-5 · 0.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With fast scaling and advancement of integrated circuit (IC) technology, circuitries have become smaller and denser. New materials and more sophisticated designs have evolved. These changes reduced the effectiveness of conventional laser induced fault localization techniques. Since IC fault localization is the most critical step in failure analysis, there are strong motivations to improve both spatial resolution and sensitivity of such systems to meet the new challenges from advanced technology. Refractive solid immersion lens (RSIL) is well known to enhance the laser spot size which directly affects resolution and sensitivity in back side fault localizations. In practice, it is difficult to operate RSIL at the ideal configurations to obtain the smallest spot resolution. It is necessary to understand the resolution performance at the other design focal planes. Besides resolution, there are also other factors that affect sensitivity in a RSIL enhanced system. This paper identifies and characterizes key RSIL design parameters to optimize RSIL performance on laser induced techniques. We report that the most efficient conditions are achieved close to aplanatic RSIL design to within 20-25 microm (for a 1 mm diameter lens), and the backing objective should be the minimum numerical aperture required for optimum resolution performance. The size of the mechanical clear aperture opening should be large enough (>80%) to exploit the advantage of aplanatic RSIL. RSIL is developed on a laser scanning optical microscope in this work, and a resolution of 0.3 microm (for a wavelength of 1340 nm) was achieved over a range of operating conditions. A quantitative resolution of 0.25 microm is achieved and a pitch structure of 0.4 microm is easily resolvable. Close to 15 times enhancement in laser induced signal is obtained.
    The Review of scientific instruments 01/2009; 80(1):013703. DOI:10.1063/1.3070612 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Distributions of the optical field in a solid immersion lens recording system are calculated for higher-order radially polarized modes of the incidence. Results show that two higher-order radially polarized modes of R-TEM(11) (* )and R-TEM(21) * are useful to near-field optical recording, but further higher-order modes such as R-TEM(31) (* ), R-TEM(41) (* ), and R-TEM(51) (* ) are not useful due to the strong side-lobe intensity. Compared with R-TEM(01) (* ) beam focusing, the full width at half-maximum of the recording spot is decreased markedly and the focal depth is increased substantially by using R-TEM(11) (* )beam focusing. The effect of the beam width of the R-TEM(11) (* ) mode is also discussed.
    Optics Express 04/2009; 17(5):3698-706. DOI:10.1364/OE.17.003698 · 3.49 Impact Factor
Show more