The clinical impact of neuropsychiatric manifestations in early systemic lupus erythematosus.
Sjögren's Syndrome Clinic, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Gene Therapy and Therapeutics Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 5.85). 09/2007; 3(8):428-9. DOI:10.1038/ncprheum0553
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ABSTRACT: The cause of neurologic (N) and psychiatric (P) syndromes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mutifactorial and includes primary immunopathogenic mechanisms, nonspecific sequelae of chronic disease, and concurrent illnesses. We compared the prevalence, diversity, and clinical significance of NP syndromes in patients with SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three patients with SLE were matched by age and sex to 53 patients with RA attending ambulatory clinics in a single academic medical center. All fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for either SLE or RA. Cumulative NP manifestations were determined using the ACR nomenclature and case definitions for 19 NP syndromes. Depression and anxiety were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS) and symptoms of cognitive dysfunction were assessed by the Cognitive Symptoms Inventory (CSI). Health related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated by the SF-36 and fatigue by a 10 point Likert scale. The patients were well matched with regard to age, sex, disease duration, and years of education. There were no significant differences in self-reported HRQOL, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and cognitive symptoms between the 2 groups. The proportion of patients with cumulative NP events was higher in RA than in SLE patients (47% vs 28%; p = 0.045), and of these the occurrence of multiple NP events in individual patients was comparable in both groups (SLE 53%; RA 48%; p = 0.75). Fifty-five percent and 66% of NP events occurred prior to the diagnosis of SLE and RA, respectively. NP events common to both SLE and RA patients were headaches, mood disorders, acute confusional states, anxiety, cerebrovascular disease, and cognitive dysfunction. Seizures and demyelinating syndrome occurred only in SLE patients, but were rare. Depression scores (HADS) were significantly higher in SLE patients with a history of cumulative NP events compared to RA patients with NP events (p = 0.02). Similarly, symptoms of cognitive dysfunction (CSI) were more common in SLE patients with a history of NP manifestations (p = 0.02). However, there were no significant differences in SF-36 subscale or fatigue scores between SLE and RA patients with cumulative NP events. NP syndromes, regardless of etiology, are common in both SLE and RA patients. SLE patients with NP syndromes report more symptoms of depression and cognitive dysfunction compared to RA patients with NP syndromes, but do not report significantly poorer HRQOL. These results emphasize the presence of non-disease-specific causes of NP manifestations in SLE patients, which should be acknowledged in future studies of pathogenesis and treatment.The Journal of Rheumatology 09/2005; 32(8):1459-6. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We conducted the current study to determine the prevalence and predictors of neuropsychiatric damage in a cohort of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients were those newly diagnosed as having SLE between 1990 and 2004 in our unit. Demographic data, presenting and cumulative clinical features, disease activity score at diagnosis, and serial damage scores were obtained. Neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations were classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature. NP damage was evaluated by the NP domain of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index. Factors predictive of NP damage were studied by regression models. We studied 282 patients who fulfilled > or =4 of the ACR criteria for SLE. The mean age of SLE onset was 31.8 +/- 14 years. After a mean follow-up of 6.7 years, 65 patients (23%) had at least 1 NP manifestation and 50 (18%) developed NP damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index > or = 1). Cerebrovascular accident was the most common cause of NP damage (35%), followed by seizure (20%), psychosis (12%), cranial/peripheral neuropathy (12%), cognitive dysfunction (12%), and myelopathy (9%). In a multiple regression model, disease activity at diagnosis, cumulative non-NP damage, presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and ever use of pulse methylprednisolone were independent factors associated with NP damage. New NP damage after the first year of diagnosis was predicted by longer disease duration and the use of pulse methylprednisolone in another multivariate model. Neither early nor cumulative NP damage predicted mortality. NP damage is prevalent in Chinese patients with SLE and is independently associated with more active disease at diagnosis, antiphospholipid antibodies and the use of pulse methylprednisolone therapy. Primary prevention for cerebrovascular disease in high-risk patients may reduce NP damage.Medicine 07/2006; 85(4):221-8. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence, characteristics, attribution, and clinical significance of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in an international inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The study was conducted by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC). Patients were enrolled within 15 months of fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria. All NP events within a predefined enrollment window were identified using the ACR case definitions of 19 NP syndromes. Decision rules were derived to determine the proportion of NP disease attributable to SLE. Clinical significance was determined using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey and the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI). A total of 572 patients (88% female) were recruited, with a mean +/- SD age of 35 +/- 14 years. The mean +/- SD disease duration was 5.2 +/- 4.2 months. Within the enrollment window, 158 of 572 patients (28%) had at least 1 NP event. In total, there were 242 NP events that encompassed 15 of 19 NP syndromes. The proportion of NP events attributed to SLE varied from 19% to 38% using alternate attribution models and occurred in 6.1-11.7% of patients. Those with NP events, regardless of attribution, had lower scores on the SF-36 and higher SDI scores compared with patients with no NP events. Twenty-eight percent of SLE patients experienced at least 1 NP event around the time of diagnosis of SLE, of which only a minority were attributed to SLE. Regardless of attribution, the occurrence of NP events was associated with reduced quality of life and increased organ damage.Arthritis & Rheumatology 02/2007; 56(1):265-73. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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