Previous studies suggest that challenge of most wine-sensitive asthmatic patients may not result in a reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)).
The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) occur following wine challenge of asthmatic patients who report sensitivity to wine, and whether such changes could help clarify the role of sulphite additives in wine-induced asthmatic responses.
Eight self-reporting wine-sensitive asthmatic patients completed double-blind challenges with high- and low-sulphite wines on separate days. FEV(1) and histamine PC(20) were measured before and after consumption of 150 mL of wine.
None of the eight subjects demonstrated a clinically significant >or=15%) reduction in FEV(1) following challenge with either high- or low-sulphite wine. In contrast, one patient demonstrated clinically significant increase in BHR following challenge with both high- and low-sulphite wines, and a smaller increase in BHR following placebo challenge. A second patient showed a significant increase, while another showed a significant decrease in BHR following challenge with low-sulphite wine. A fourth patient showed borderline increases in BHR following challenge with both high- and low-sulphite wines.
Although changes in BHR, in the absence of reductions in FEV(1), were observed in some asthmatic patients following wine challenge, these changes were not consistent with a single aetiology. Consequently, this study did not support a major role for the sulphite additives in wine-induced asthmatic responses in the patients studied. The aetiology of wine-induced asthma is likely to be complex and appears to vary among individuals who are sensitive to these drinks.
"Wine production traditionally involves fining, during which some ingredients such as tannins are removed by co-precipitation with proteins derived from milk (casein, potassium caseinate), egg (ovalbumin, lysozyme) or fish (isinglass). Hypersensitivity reactions to wine have been reported rarely in the literature, attributed to grape proteins , biogenic amines, salicylates, sulfites or yeast [2,3]. No allergic reactions have been attributed to traces of fining agents in wine ; however, this possibility has not been ruled out. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: European legislators and wine producers still debate on the requirement for labeling of wines fined with potentially allergenic food proteins (casein, egg white or fish-derived isinglass). We investigated whether wines fined with known concentrations of these proteins have the potential to provoke clinical allergic reactions in relevant patients.
In-house wines were produced for the study, fined with different concentrations of casein (n = 7), egg albumin (n = 1) and isinglass (n = 3). ELISA and PCR kits specific for the respective proteins were used to identify the fining agents. Skin prick tests and basophil activation tests were performed in patients with confirmed IgE-mediated relevant food allergies (n = 24). A wine consumption questionnaire and detailed history on possible reactions to wine was obtained in a multinational cohort of milk, egg or fish allergic patients (n = 53) and patients allergic to irrelevant foods as controls (n = 13).
Fining agents were not detectable in wines with the available laboratory methods. Nevertheless, positive skin prick test reactions and basophil activation to the relevant wines were observed in the majority of patients with allergy to milk, egg or fish, correlating with the concentration of the fining agent. Among patients consuming wine, reported reactions were few and mild and similar with the ones reported from the control group.
Casein, isinglass or egg, remaining in traces in wine after fining, present a very low risk for the respective food allergic consumers. Physician and patient awareness campaigns may be more suitable than generalized labeling to address this issue, as the latter may have negative impact on both non-allergic and allergic consumers.
"The pathomechanisms underlying wine intolerance appear to be manifold. Symptoms may arise from hypersensitivity to sulphites added to wines (Wüthrich 1989; Vally 2007) or, in rare cases, represent true allergic reactions to grape lipid transfer proteins or other allergens surviving in low amounts in the fermented product (Pastorello 2003; Schad 2005). Other studies identified acetaldehyde, a metabolite of ethanol with the capacity to release histamine from lung mast cells, as a major cause for wine-induced asthma in Japanese patients (Kawano 2004; Vally 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biogenic amines in wine may impair sensory wine quality and cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. In this study, histamine and other biogenic amines were determined by HPLC after amine derivatisation to dansyl chloride conjugates in 100 selected high-quality red wines made from seven different cultivars. Amine levels varied considerably between different wines. The most abundant amines were putrescine (median = 19.4 mg l(-1), range = 2.9-122), histamine (7.2 mg l(-1), 0.5-26.9), and tyramine (3.5 mg l(-1), 1.1-10.7), whereas lower levels were found for isoamylamine (median = 0.25 mg l(-1)), phenylethylamine (0.16 mg l(-1)), cadaverine (0.58 mg l(-1)), spermidine (1.8 mg l(-1)) and tryptamine (0.06 mg l(-1)). Positive correlations were observed between isoamylamine and phenylethylamine, and between histamine, putrescine and tyramine levels. Amine concentrations were similar in all wine cultivars except Pinot noir and St. Laurent wines, which showed significantly higher tryptamine and cadaverine levels. The results indicate that levels of histamine and other biogenic amines may vary considerably between red wines independent of grape variety and that high amounts can also be found in high-rated wines. Adopting a legal histamine threshold level of 10 mg l(-1) in the European Union, as formerly introduced in other countries, would have excluded 34% of the investigated wines from the market.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 02/2011; 28(4):408-16. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2010.551421 · 1.80 Impact Factor
"Metabisulphites, brewer's yeast, hops and barley contained in beer have all been implicated in episodic cutaneous eruptions and anaphylaxis [9, 10]. More recent evidence using double-blind placebo-controlled challenges suggests that intolerance to these chemicals is directly responsible for only a relatively small number of cases of adverse reactions to wine in asthmatics [11, 12]. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to grape has been rarely reported as a cause of alcohol-induced anaphylaxis [13, 14]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adverse reactions to alcoholic beverages are common and diverse in aetiology. Ethanol-induced anaphylaxis, however, is a rare but often life-threatening condition that warrants careful evaluation in suspected individuals. We present the cases of two patients who developed urticaria, angioedema and throat constriction within minutes of consuming white wine. Both individuals demonstrated no adverse reaction to double-blind placebo-controlled challenges to metabisulphite or sodium salicylate. However, an open challenge to white wine elicited urticaria in both subjects. This reaction was reproduced with a double-blind placebo-controlled challenge to ethanol and was accompanied by a rise in serum total tryptase levels. Positive skin test responses to 2% acetic acid, a breakdown product of ethanol, were elicited from both patients but not from three normal controls. These two cases demonstrate the need for a systematic approach for the evaluation of allergic reactions to alcohol.
Case Reports in Dermatology 04/2009; 1(1):1-6. DOI:10.1159/000209154
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