Influence on human sleep patterns of lowering and delaying the minimum core body temperature by slow changes in the thermal environment.
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that appropriate changes in thermal environment would enhance the quality of sleep.
Controlled laboratory study.
Healthy young men (n = 7, mean age 26 years).
Nocturnal sleep structures in semi-nude subjects were compared between a condition where an ambient temperature (Ta) of 29.5 degree C was maintained throughout the night (constant Ta), and a second condition (dynamic Ta) where Ta changed slowly within the thermoneutral range (from 27.5 C to 29.5 degree C).
Statistically significant (P < 0.05) results included a lower and a later occurrence of minimum core body temperature (Tc), and a longer duration of slow-wave (stages 3+4) sleep in dynamic versus constant T. However, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, the total durations of light (stages 1+2) and rapid eye movement sleep, and the latencies to sleep onset, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep did not differ between conditions.
Lowering the minimum and delaying the nadir of nocturnal Tc increases slow-wave sleep (probably by an increase of dry heat loss); use of this tactic might improve the overall quality of sleep.
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ABSTRACT: To clarify the clinical applicability of intestinal absorptive barriers, we have quantified messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) protein and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in intestinal biopsy specimens from 2 small-bowel transplant recipients. Postoperative immunosuppressive therapy was started with intravenous and oral administrations of tacrolimus and a small amount of steroids. The daily dosage of tacrolimus was modified mainly on the basis of trough levels. After confirmation that the enterocyte MDR1 level was decreasing, tacrolimus was administered via the oral route only. The mRNA levels in the biopsy specimens varied widely throughout the period. With high-dose steroid-pulse treatment, the enterocyte mRNA expression of CYP3A4, but not of MDR1, was markedly enhanced. The mRNA levels of MDR1, but not CYP3A4, correlated well with the concentration/oral dose ratio and the oral dosage of tacrolimus. The good progress after transplantation in both cases suggested that monitoring the change in expression of MDR1 mRNA in the graft intestine might be helpful for understanding the pharmacokinetic profile and determining when to change the route of tacrolimus administration in small-bowel transplant recipients.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 05/2004; 75(4):352-61. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies of the interaction between a pulsed CO2 laser and micrometer-sized aqueous and organic particles by use of light-scattering methods and step-scan Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are reported. Visible two-color extinction experiments indicate primary particle shattering, accompanied by a high fraction of vaporization, followed by secondary particle evaporation. The extent of the latter depends on the pulse intensity and particle composition. Angle-resolved light-scattering investigations provide insight into the aerosol size distribution and temperature following the pulsed heating event. The time dependence of the vapor plume, monitored with step-scan FTIR spectroscopy, confirms that a large fraction of the initial particle is quickly evaporated during the shattering event, followed by secondary fragment evaporation and thermal expansion.Applied Optics 10/2002; 41(27):5804-13. · 1.41 Impact Factor