Intra-individual daily and yearly variability in actigraphically recorded sleep measures: The CARDIA study

Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC 2007, Chicago, IL, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 07/2007; 30(6):793-6.
Source: PubMed


To describe the day-to-day and year-to-year variation in sleep characteristics among early middle-aged adults.
Participants wore an Actiwatch (Mini Mitter, Inc) for 3 days on two occasions approximately 1 year apart.
N = 669 participants aged 38-50 years from the Chicago site of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort study.
Sleep measures included sleep duration, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and time in bed. For each sleep parameter, total variance was decomposed into between-subject variance, within-subject variance from day to day, and within-subject variance from year to year. The standard deviation was calculated from the variance. Analysis yielded a within-subject daily standard deviation (SD) of 1.26 hours and a within-subject yearly SD of 0.39 hours for sleep duration. Daily SD was 30.7 minutes and yearly SD was 6.3 minutes for within-subject variability of sleep latency. Daily SD was 8.4% and yearly SD was 2.7% for within-subject variability of sleep efficiency. Finally, daily SD was 1.31 hours and yearly SD was 0.52 hours for within-subject variability of time in bed.
For each of the 4 sleep characteristics, nightly variability was much greater than yearly variability, meaning sleep behavior changes little in one year in this cohort of early middle-aged adults, despite large daily fluctuations. These results have important methodological implications, including that single-day measures of sleep may not accurately reflect habitual behavior.

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    • "Sleep fragmentation scores, or a measure of the restlessness of sleep, were estimated by summing the percentage of movement time with the percentage of time spent immobile for ≤1 min. A previous report found high continuity in the values recorded between the two waves for sleep duration [15]. Further information on the methods used in the CARDIA Sleep Study have been described [9]. "
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    • "Research with adult samples suggests systematic within-person variability in the three dimensions ( Akerstedt et al., 2012; Knutson, Rathouz, Yan, Liu, & Lauderdale, 2007; McCrae et al., 2008). For example, Gamaldo et al. (2010) showed substantial within-person variability of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality in adults over eight measurement points (within 3 weeks). "
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