Suction due to left ventricular assist: implications for device control and management.
ABSTRACT Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) overpumping is associated with hemolysis, thrombus release, and tissue damage at the pump inlet. However, the impact of LVAD suction on pulmonary circulatory function remains unknown. We investigated LVAD suction as induced by pulmonary artery banding and overpumping in experimental animals and in a computer model. In six sheep, a rotary LVAD was implanted. Before inducing suction, partial support (40-60% of cardiac output) was established and characterized by measuring pressures and flows. In the animals, pulmonary artery occlusion (PAOC) elicited LVAD suction (left ventricular pressure was from -10 to -20 mm Hg) within 5-10 heartbeats. During suction, aortic pressure dropped to 50% and LVAD flow decreased significantly. After releasing the occlusion (20 s), the collapsed state persisted for another 20 s. A similar trend was obtained by simulating PAOC in the computer model. Additional simulations showed that pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), volume status, and right ventricular (RV) contractility are exponentially related to the persistence of collapse after a suction event. Even modest increases in predisposing factors (elevated PVR, RV dysfunction, hypovolemia) caused sustained hemodynamic collapse lasting in excess of 15 min. Both in selected animals and the computer model, comparable suction-induced collapse was obtained by increasing LVAD speed by about 33%. Attempted compensation by simply decreasing speed was not effective, but temporarily shutting down the LVAD caused rapid reversal of collapse. In conclusion, rotary LVAD suction causes unfavorable conditions for effective unloading. The use of pump interventions appears a promising tool to detect suction and to avoid the associated hemodynamic depression.
- Artificial Organs 01/2008; 32(3):240-258. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Third-generation continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) provide reduced pulsatility flow. We examined the safe working range for LVAD pump speed and the effect on pump output and cardiac function in 13 stable outpatients with VentrAssist-LVAD (Ventracor Ltd, Australia). Pump speed was decreased from a baseline mean of 2,073 ± 86 revolutions per minute (RPM, with corresponding mean flow of 5.59 ± 1.18 L/min, mean ± standard deviation) to an average low-speed of 1,835 ± 55 RPM (corresponding flow 4.68 ± 0.99 L/min) and up to high-speed of 2,315 ± 66 RPM (corresponding flow 6.30 ± 1.29 L/min). There was a strong linear relationship between alteration in speed and flow rates (r(2) = 0.89, p < 0.00001) but marked interpatient variation. Downward titration to preset minimum 1,800 RPM was achieved in 9/13 (69%) and upward titration to the preset maximum 2,400 RPM was achieved in 4/13 (31%). Upward titration was stopped due to ventricular suction or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 4/13 (31%). Ventricular suction or VT (in 4/13) tended to be more common in patients with poor right ventricular (RV) function (p = 0.07). In summary, pump flow is stable within a relatively small speed range and should not be altered without close monitoring due to variation in response between patients, particularly with concomitant RV impairment.ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 10/2011; 57(6):495-500. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that pump output by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) increases with graded exercise testing. However, data on pump behavior during activities of daily living and sleep, where cardiac output requirements vary markedly, are lacking. We sought to determine pump parameters and activity levels in stable patients receiving outpatient LVAD therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven outpatients (mean age 51 ± 14 years, 9 male) with centrifugal continuous-flow LVADs underwent monitoring of LVAD flow, heart rate (HR), energy expenditure, and physical activity over 1 week in an outpatient setting. Physical activity was recorded with the use of a combined pedometer, accelerometer, and calorimeter Sensewear armband. Pump, HR, and physical activity parameters were time matched for correlation analysis. Outpatients had an average pump flow of 5.67 ± 1.27 L/min and engaged predominately in low levels of physical activity (mean daily step count 3,249/day). Across the entire cohort, pump flow exhibited strong univariate relationships with patients' energy expenditure (r = 0.73), step count (r = 0.69), HR (r = 0.73), sleep (r = -0.89), and skin temperature (r = -0.85; P < .0001 for all). Multivariate analysis suggested that pump output was predominantly affected by recumbent position, energy expenditure and skin temperature (r2 = 0.84; P < .0001). Pump flow and power consumption were significantly lower during sleep than during wake periods (5.48 ± 1.31 L/min vs 5.80 ± 1.26 L/min; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Pump output from continuous-flow LVADs is adaptive to changes in activities of daily living. Circadian variation in pump flow is mostly explained by recumbency and activity levels. Despite adequate pump flow, many LVAD patients continue to live sedentary lifestyles.Journal of cardiac failure 03/2013; 19(3):169-175. · 3.25 Impact Factor