Suction due to left ventricular assist: implications for device control and management.
ABSTRACT Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) overpumping is associated with hemolysis, thrombus release, and tissue damage at the pump inlet. However, the impact of LVAD suction on pulmonary circulatory function remains unknown. We investigated LVAD suction as induced by pulmonary artery banding and overpumping in experimental animals and in a computer model. In six sheep, a rotary LVAD was implanted. Before inducing suction, partial support (40-60% of cardiac output) was established and characterized by measuring pressures and flows. In the animals, pulmonary artery occlusion (PAOC) elicited LVAD suction (left ventricular pressure was from -10 to -20 mm Hg) within 5-10 heartbeats. During suction, aortic pressure dropped to 50% and LVAD flow decreased significantly. After releasing the occlusion (20 s), the collapsed state persisted for another 20 s. A similar trend was obtained by simulating PAOC in the computer model. Additional simulations showed that pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), volume status, and right ventricular (RV) contractility are exponentially related to the persistence of collapse after a suction event. Even modest increases in predisposing factors (elevated PVR, RV dysfunction, hypovolemia) caused sustained hemodynamic collapse lasting in excess of 15 min. Both in selected animals and the computer model, comparable suction-induced collapse was obtained by increasing LVAD speed by about 33%. Attempted compensation by simply decreasing speed was not effective, but temporarily shutting down the LVAD caused rapid reversal of collapse. In conclusion, rotary LVAD suction causes unfavorable conditions for effective unloading. The use of pump interventions appears a promising tool to detect suction and to avoid the associated hemodynamic depression.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the dynamic filling index, a novel parameter to monitor changes in venous return and drainable volume, in circulatory assisted patients. Minimized extracorporeal bypass systems lack volume buffering capacity, demanding tight control of drainable volume to maintain bypass flow. Therefore, with patients on minimized bypass quantitative assessment of venous drainable volume is crucial. In seven patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using minimized extracorporeal bypass we utilized luxation of the heart to induce a reduction in venous return. The speed of the centrifugal pump was transiently and periodically reduced to monitor resultant changes in bypass flow. The dynamic filling index, a measure of drainable volume, was calculated as Deltaflow/Deltaspeed. With luxation, the dynamic filling index was significantly reduced (from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/rotation, p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval of mean difference: 0.23-0.46 ml/rotation), whereas routinely recorded parameters, like bypass flow, pump inlet and arterial line pressure, did not change significantly. The intra-measurement reproducibility for the dynamic filling index was 0.5 ml/rotation (20% of the mean), suggesting good potential for this parameter to monitor on-pump venous return in patients. The dynamic filling index can detect small changes in venous return and drainable volume which remain unrevealed by routinely recorded parameters. This index could be a valuable tool to monitor and control circulatory filling in individual patients supported by minimized extracorporeal bypass.European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 06/2009; 36(2):330-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.03.045 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal life support systems lack volume-buffering capacity. Therefore, any decrease in venous intravascular volume available for drainage may result in acutely reduced support flow. We recently developed a method to quantify drainable volume and now conceived a reserve-driven pump control strategy, which is different from existing pressure or flow servo control schemes. Here, we give an outline of the algorithm and present animal experimental data showing proof of principle. With an acute reduction in circulatory volume (10-15%), pump flow immediately dropped from 4.1 to 1.9 l/min. Our pump control algorithm was able to restore bypass flow to 3.2 l/min (about 80% of the original level) and, thereby, reduced the duration of the low-flow condition. This demonstrates that a reserve-driven pump control strategy, based on the continuous monitoring of drainable volume, may maintain extracorporeal circulatory support flow, despite serious changes in filling conditions.Perfusion 03/2010; 25(1):25-9. DOI:10.1177/0267659109360284 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A physiological control system was developed for a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in which the target pump flow rate (LVADQ) was set as a function of left atrial pressure (LAP), mimicking the Frank-Starling mechanism. The control strategy was implemented using linear PID control and was evaluated in a pulsatile mock circulation loop using a prototyped centrifugal pump by varying pulmonary vascular resistance to alter venous return. The control strategy automatically varied pump speed (2460 to 1740 to 2700 RPM) in response to a decrease and subsequent increase in venous return. In contrast, a fixed-speed pump caused a simulated ventricular suction event during low venous return and higher ventricular volumes during high venous return. The preload sensitivity was increased from 0.011 L/min/mmHg in fixed speed mode to 0.47L/min/mmHg, a value similar to that of the native healthy heart. The sensitivity varied automatically to maintain the LAP and LVADQ within a predefined zone. This control strategy requires the implantation of a pressure sensor in the left atrium and a flow sensor around the outflow cannula of the LVAD. However, appropriate pressure sensor technology is not yet commercially available and so an alternative measure of preload such as pulsatility of pump signals should be investigated.Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2011; 2011:1335-8. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090314