Can myoglobin expression in pancreatic beta cells improve insulin secretion under hypoxia? An exploratory study with transgenic porcine islets.
ABSTRACT The feasibility of myoglobin (Mb)-facilitated oxygen transport in improving porcine islet survival under hypoxia was investigated. Discrete groups of islets were transfected with replication-defective adenoviral vector Ad5 respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) to induce expression of Mb or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Native islets served as the controls. In vitro studies at 37 degrees C assessed islet insulin secretion efficacy: (i) to a glucose challenge from 30 to 300 mg/dL at fixed pO2; and (ii) at variable oxygen tensions ranging from 5 to 40 mm Hg over 12 h. The transfection was effective in initiating islet expression of Mb or GFP. Low Mb-expression levels equivalent to 2% the Mb concentration in a muscle cell (0.25 ng of Mb per islet) were documented, with no statistical improvement in insulin secretion. A surprising side note is that insulin secretion was impaired in islets expressing GFP. Improved Mb expression is essential to determine the feasibility of enhancing islet survival under hypoxia.
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ABSTRACT: La transplantation d’îlots de Langerhans microencapsulés est un traitement prometteur du diabète de type 1. La microcapsule protège l’îlot du système immunitaire, tout en permettant la diffusion de petites molécules. Comme la microcapsule empêche la revascularisation des îlots, leur oxygénation se fait par diffusion d’oxygène et ils sont exposés à l’hypoxie. Le manque d’oxygène est un facteur limitant dans la survie des îlots microencapsulés. Il est connu que les plus petits îlots sont plus résistant à l’hypoxie à cause d’une meilleure diffusion de l’oxygène. À cette fin, les agrégats de cellules dispersées d’îlots seront étudiés. Lorsque les cellules des îlots sont dispersées, elles ont la propriété de se ré-assembler dans une structure semblable à celle des îlots. La présente étude a permis de mettre au point une technique de formation des agrégats, de les caractériser et de comparer la résistance à l’hypoxie des îlots et des agrégats. Ceux-ci ont une structure semblable aux îlots et ils sont de plus petite taille. Pour cette raison, ils sont plus viables après un choc hypoxique tout en renversant efficacement l’hyperglycémie de souris diabétiques. Les agrégats sont une alternative intéressante pour la transplantation d’îlots microencapsulés puisque leur oxygénation est plus efficace. Transplantation of microencapsulated islets of Langerhans is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. The microcapsule allows the diffusion of small molecules, while protecting the islet from the antibodies and immune cells. However, microcapsule prevents islet revascularization, thus oxygenation depends on diffusion and islets are exposed to hypoxia. Poor oxygenation is a major limitation in microencapsulated islet survival. It was shown that smaller islets are more resistant to hypoxia because of a better oxygen diffusion. In this study, dispersed islet cell aggregates will be used to improve the oxygenation. When islet cells are dispersed into single cells, they have the ability to re-associate into an islet-like structure. This study allowed to set up a technique to form aggregates, to characterized them and to compare the resistance to hypoxia of islets and aggregates. Aggregates have a similar structure than islets and they are smaller. For this reason, they survive better to a hypoxic treatment, while restoring efficiently normoglycemia in diabetic mices. Aggregates are an interesting solution for microencapsulated islet transplantation because they have a better oxygenation.
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ABSTRACT: In vitro genetic modification has been regarded as one option to improve the viability and functionality of pancreatic islets when used for transplantation in patients with diabetes, either as naked islets or in a type of bioartificial pancreas. In this approach, vector safety and poor transfection efficiency are major concerns. In this study, the influence of in vitro transfection conditions on polyplexes constructed of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) on the transfection efficiency was investigated by varying the transfection medium, the pDNA dose, and the amines of polycation/phosphates of pDNA (N/P) ratio. Ca2+-containing Krebs-Ringer-HEPES medium was more effective than RPMI 1640 medium by increasing transfection efficiency (2.5-fold). An increase in pDNA dose slightly reduced the transfection efficiency but had minimal influence on islet loss. However, the N/P ratio had a large effect on islet viability and transfection efficiency. For example, the PEI/pDNA ratio at N/P = 10 caused greater islet loss (56% vs. 28%) and 30-fold less transfection efficiency than at N/P = 5. Even under a set of best conditions selected from this study, mostly a fraction of cells located in the peripheral regions of an islet were transfected, and the viability and insulin secretion from the treated islets were not altered. However, it was found that the extent of apoptosis was noticeably higher (approximately 16%) than in untreated islets (approximately 2%). These results suggest that the gene delivery efficacy to isolated islets can be improved by manipulating the transfection conditions. Polymeric vectors will broaden the options for islet transfection, which is currently limited to viral vectors.Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 08/2009; 11(7):443-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
- Artificial Organs 01/2008; 32(3):240-258. · 1.96 Impact Factor