Denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with increased mitochondrial ROS production

University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States
AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 10/2007; 293(3):R1159-68. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00767.2006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially mitochondrial ROS, are postulated to play a significant role in muscle atrophy. We report a dramatic increase in mitochondrial ROS generation in three conditions associated with muscle atrophy: in aging, in mice lacking CuZn-SOD (Sod1(-/-)), and in the neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ROS generation in muscle mitochondria is nearly threefold higher in 28- to 32-mo-old than in 10-mo-old mice and is associated with a 30% loss in gastrocnemius mass. In Sod1(-/-) mice, muscle mitochondrial ROS production is increased >100% in 20-mo compared with 5-mo-old mice along with a >50% loss in muscle mass. ALS G93A mutant mice show a 75% loss of muscle mass during disease progression and up to 12-fold higher muscle mitochondrial ROS generation. In a second ALS mutant model, H46RH48Q mice, ROS production is approximately fourfold higher than in control mice and is associated with a less dramatic loss (30%) in muscle mass. Thus ROS production is strongly correlated with the extent of muscle atrophy in these models. Because each of the models of muscle atrophy studied are associated to some degree with a loss of innervation, we were interested in determining whether denervation plays a role in ROS generation in muscle mitochondria isolated from hindlimb muscle following surgical sciatic nerve transection. Seven days post-denervation, muscle mitochondrial ROS production increased nearly 30-fold. We conclude that enhanced generation of mitochondrial ROS may be a common factor in the mechanism underlying denervation-induced atrophy.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aging is a complex process that affects every major system at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. Although the exact cause of aging is unknown, there is significant evidence that oxidative stress plays a major role in the aging process. The basis of the oxidative stress hypothesis is that aging occurs as a result of an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, which leads to the accrual of damaged proteins, lipids and DNA macromolecules with age. Age-dependent increases in protein oxidation and aggregates, lipofuscin, and DNA mutations contribute to age-related pathologies. Many transgenic/knockout mouse models over expressing or deficient in key antioxidant enzymes have been generated to examine the effect of oxidative stress on aging and age-related diseases. Based on currently reported lifespan studies using mice with altered antioxidant defense, there is little evidence that oxidative stress plays a role in determining lifespan. However, mice deficient in antioxidant enzymes are often more susceptible to age-related disease while mice overexpressing antioxidant enzymes often have an increase in the amount of time spent without disease, i.e., healthspan. Thus, by understanding the mechanisms that affect healthy aging, we may discover potential therapeutic targets to extend human healthspan.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atrophy is a defining feature of aging skeletal muscle that contributes to progressive weakness and an increased risk of mobility impairment, falls, and physical frailty in very advanced age. Amongst the most frequently implicated mechanisms of aging muscle atrophy is mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies employing methods that are well-suited to interrogating intrinsic mitochondrial function find that mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species emission changes are inconsistent between aging rat muscles undergoing atrophy and appear normal in human skeletal muscle from septuagenarian physically active subjects. On the other hand, a sensitization to permeability transition seems to be a general property of atrophying muscle with aging and this effect is even seen in atrophying muscle from physically active septuagenarian subjects. In addition to this intrinsic alteration in mitochondrial function, factors extrinsic to the mitochondria may also modulate mitochondrial function in aging muscle. In particular, recent evidence implicates oxidative stress in the aging milieu as a factor that depresses respiratory function in vivo (an effect that is not present ex vivo). Furthermore, in very advanced age, not only does muscle atrophy become more severe and clinically relevant in terms of its impact, but also there is evidence that this is driven by an accumulation of severely atrophied denervated myofibers. As denervation can itself modulate mitochondrial function and recruit mitochondrial-mediated atrophy pathways, future investigations need to address the degree to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial alterations in very advanced age are a consequence of denervation, rather than a primary organelle defect, to refine our understanding of the relevance of mitochondria as a therapeutic target at this more advanced age.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 09/2014; 6:211. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00211 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MtDNA deletion mutations are not increased in Sod1−/− mouse skeletal muscle.•Focal mtDNA deletion mutation accumulations are not affected in Sod1−/− mouse skeletal muscle.•The type and localization of ROS are critical to the impact on mtDNA.
    Experimental Gerontology 11/2014; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.11.012 · 3.53 Impact Factor