Determinants of smoking among adolescents in the Southern Cape-Karoo region, South Africa.
ABSTRACT Tobacco control programmes in multi-ethnic societies must take into account ethnic differences in the determinants of smoking. The I-Change Model, an extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, was used to investigate the factors related to smoking among a sample of 3378 Black African, Coloured and White, monthly and non-monthly smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Across the ethnic groups, non-monthly smokers reported a more positive attitude towards non-smoking, social influences that were more supportive of non-smoking, higher self-efficacy in stressful, routine and social situations, greater intention not to smoke in the next year and lower levels of depressive mood and risk behaviour. Regression analyses suggested that the weight of these determinants may differ in predicting monthly smoking among the ethnic groups. Black African students may benefit from the development of attitudinal cognitions and coping skills to counter peer influence. Coloured students also require skills to resist peer influence. White students require coping skills in stressful and social situations. Although there are more common than unique determinants of smoking among South African adolescents, further research is needed to understand the influence of differing social, economic and cultural contexts on smoking onset.
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ABSTRACT: Drawing on data collected from 3 focus groups with 24 traditional healers, the aim of this qualitative study was to use the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to gain an understanding of traditional healer referral practices of their patients with a mental illness. Results indicated that traditional healers possess a concept of mental illness, mainly referring to a patient behaving abnormally. They often report regularly treating patients with these behaviours. Traditional healer referral to Western care is considered a temporary measure or a last resort. A majority of healers feel that allopathic physicians do not treat them with the respect that they feel their contribution to the health of the community warrants. Recommendations include the need for traditional healers to be trained to identify potential cases of mental illness in their communities and for dialogue between traditional and allopathic physicians in regard to mental health care.Transcultural Psychiatry 09/2010; 47(4):591-609. DOI:10.1177/1363461510383330 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: From the Theory of Planed Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this study is to analyse the effect of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention and preventive behaviors of cardiovascular disease. To this end, 359 participants were evaluated in an empirical study. Data were analysed using the statistical package EQS 6.1. The results indicate that self-efficacy has a positive and significant influence on behaviour intentions and on behaviour, while perception of control has a negative and significant influence on intention but not on behaviour. This work has shown the utility to distinguish between self-efficacy and perceived control in the TPB to prevent cardiovascular diseases.Universitas Psychologica 05/2010; 9(2):423-432. · 0.40 Impact Factor