Plasma urate and risk of Parkinson's disease.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 10/2007; 166(5):561-7. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm127
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oxidative stress contributes to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Urate, a potent antioxidant, could be neuroprotective. To determine whether higher plasma concentrations of urate predict a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease, the authors conducted a nested case-control study among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a cohort comprising over 18,000 men who provided blood samples in 1993-1995. Eighty-four incident cases of Parkinson's disease were diagnosed through 2000, and each was randomly matched to two controls by year of birth, race, and time of blood collection. Rate ratios of Parkinson's disease according to quartile of uricemia were estimated by use of conditional logistic regression. The mean urate concentration was 5.7 mg/dl among cases and 6.1 mg/dl among controls (p = 0.01). After adjustment for age, smoking, and caffeine, the rate ratio of Parkinson's disease for the highest quartile of uricemia compared with the lowest was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 1.02; p(trend) = 0.017). This association was stronger in analyses excluding cases diagnosed within 4 years (median) from blood collection (rate ratio = 0.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.69; p(trend) = 0.010). These results suggest that high plasma urate concentrations may decrease the risk of Parkinson's disease, and they raise the possibility that interventions to increase plasma urate may reduce the risk and delay the progression of Parkinson's disease.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. In current study, the relationships between serum vitamin D3 levels and serum UA concentrations as well as their interaction with severity of PD were evaluated in a sample of Iranian PD patients. Method. In a cross sectional study at the one of the main referral hospitals in central region of Iran, during September to November 2011, 112 patients were recruited. Severity of PD was evaluated sing H&R stages and UPDRS. Results. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient suggests the negative significant association between serum vitamin D3 and UPDRS in patients aged >62 (r = -0.34, P < 0.05). No statistically significant association was observed between the UA levels and severity of PD (represented by H&Y categories) in different levels of serum vitamin D3 not only in total sample but also in separate age and sex groups. The linear regression coefficients suggested positive association between UA and serum vitamin D3 with UPDRSIII scores while negative relationship between UA and serum vitamin D3 interaction with UPDRSIII; however it was only statistically significant in age group ≤62 (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study revealed a negative correlation between interaction of serum vitamin D3 and UA with severity of PD; other studies are required to confirm our findings.
    01/2015; 2015:463483. DOI:10.1155/2015/463483
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    ABSTRACT: Uric acid has antioxidant effects on neurons. Abnormally high levels of uric acid are, however, associated with gout. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of uric acid (and the presence of gout) may exert a protective effect against the risk of developing some neurological diseases. We aimed to investigate this hypothesis in a large database of hospital admissions in England. We analysed a database of linked statistical records of hospital admissions and death registrations in England (1999-2012). A cohort of people with gout was constructed and followed for development of multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) or motor neuron disease (MND). Then, conversely, cohorts of all people in the database with MS, PD or MND were constructed and followed for subsequent gout. Rate ratios (RRs) were determined, comparing these cohorts with people in a reference cohort. In the gout cohort, we observed a modest elevation of the overall risk of subsequent MS, PD and MND (respectively, RR = 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.55), 1.11 (1.05-1.17) and 1.28 (1.11-1.48) which was largely attributable to an increased risk observed in the early years after hospitalisation for gout. The increased risk of neurological disease did not remain after 5 years. In the cohorts of people with MS or PD, there was a significantly reduced risk of subsequent gout admission (RR = 0.79 (0.69-0.89) and 0.83 (0.79-0.87), respectively). This inverse association was sustained over time. There was also a reduced risk of MND following gout which only emerged more than five years following initial gout admission (RR at 5+ years 0.35 (0.15-0.68)). This study investigated the epidemiological evidence for a protective role of high serum concentration of uric acid, for which we used gout as a proxy, in the aetiology of MS, PD or MND. Our observations do not support this hypothesis. However, when the order was reversed, and we retrospectively followed up patients with MS, PD and MND for a number of years, we found a statistically significant deficit of gout. This suggests that there is relationship between some aspects of these neurodegenerative diseases and metabolism of uric acid.
    BMC Neurology 12/2015; 15(1):273. DOI:10.1186/s12883-015-0273-9 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses if nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics can discriminate between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and control subjects, and consequently identify metabolic markers for the disease. One-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 10 PD patients and 10 control individuals, together with uni- and multivariate statistical analysis to discriminate between the groups and to identify significantly altered metabolite concentrations. In total 60 metabolites were identified and of those 38 were quantified in all CSF samples. An overall lowering of metabolite content was observed in PD patients compared to control subjects (fold change of 0.85±0.30). Multivariate statistics reveal significant changes (ǀw*ǀ>0.2) among nine metabolites (alanine, creatinine, dimethylamine, glucose, lactate, mannose, phenylalanine, 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid). Three of these (alanine, creatinine and mannose) are identified as significantly changed also by univariate statistics (p<0.00132, Bonferroni corrected). Panels with all or a selected set of these metabolites were successfully used for discriminating between the two groups. In conclusion, NMR metabonomics can readily determine metabolite concentrations in CSF, identify putative biomarkers that distinguish between the PD patients and control subjects, and thus potentially become a tool for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2015; 594. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.03.051 · 2.06 Impact Factor


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