Motor inhibitory role of dopamine D1 receptors: implications for ADHD.
ABSTRACT Dysregulation of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in frontal-striatal circuitry has been hypothesized to underlie several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The actions of DA are mediated by five distinct receptor subtypes that belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor super-family and are divided into two major classes, D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4). Accumulating evidence implicates the D1 receptor subtype (D1R) in the regulation of motor and cognitive processes. It is generally assumed that D1R is linked to motor activity in a stimulatory fashion. However, recent findings in rodents suggest a potential role of D1R on motor inhibition, which emerges during late postnatal development. Several lines of evidence indicate that the locus of the inhibitory effects involve subregions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These results may be relevant for understanding the neurobiology of ADHD.