Muscle-strengthening activity and its association with insulin sensitivity.
ABSTRACT Muscle-strengthening activities (MSAs) may increase insulin sensitivity, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between MSAs and insulin sensitivity among American adults.
We analyzed data on 4,504 adults without diabetes, aged 20-79 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 and had information on MSAs. Self-reported frequency (times/week) of MSAs was grouped as low (<1), moderate (1-2.9), or high (>or=3). Insulin sensitivity was measured by the fasting quantitative insulin sensitivity check index x 100 (QUICKI).
After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity other than MSAs, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, and daily total caloric intake, the mean values for QUICKI by low, moderate, and high MSA were 33.6, 33.9, and 34.2, respectively (P for linear trend = 0.008) for men and 34.2, 34.6, 34.6, respectively (P for linear trend = 0.009) for women. Mean fasting insulin (picomols per liter) concentrations were 75.0, 68.9, and 65.9, respectively (P for linear trend = 0.017) for men and 66.9, 63.3, 61.2, respectively (P for linear trend = 0.007) for women. There were no significant differences across MSA groups for fasting glucose among men or women.
MSA is independently associated with higher insulin sensitivity among U.S. adults. Efforts to increase MSA may be a realistic, feasible, and effective method of reducing insulin resistance among the U.S. population.
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- "2012). Resistance exercise may be an attractive alternative to conventional aerobic exercise because it requires less time, enhances physical function via increased muscle strength, reduces cardiometabolic risk factors, and improves glycemic control (Cheng et al. 2007; Karelis et al. 2008; Potteiger et al. 2011). Resistance exercise improves glucose regulation in part by enhancing insulin sensitivity (Cuff et al. 2003; Holten et al. 2004; Ishii et al. 1998; Reed et al. 2012), and reducing the taxation on the b-cell to release insulin (Fenicchia et al. 2004; Fluckey et al. 1994). "
ABSTRACT: Obesity may attenuate metabolic health improvements following lifestyle interventions. However, the effect of adiposity on insulin action following resistance exercise in young non-diabetic women is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adiposity attenuates improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (INS0-60/GLC0-60) after both acute resistance exercise (ARE) and progressive training (PRT). Twenty-six young non-diabetic women (21.2 ± 0.7 years) were randomly assigned to control (C; n = 7; BF 40.1 ± 2.1 %) or exercise groups: normal body fat (NBF; n = 8; BF 29.9 ± 2.3 %) and high body fat (HBF; n = 12; BF 48.2 ± 1.4 %). Acute whole-body exercises were performed at 60 % of 1-RM for three sets of 8-12 repetitions, and PRT was performed 3 days/week for 7 weeks. A 75 g OGTT was conducted before and after ARE and PRT to estimate insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and INS0-60/GLC0-60. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using the trapezoidal model. ARE had no statistical effect on insulin action across groups. Strength and fat-free mass (via DXA) increased after PRT in both NBF and HBF (p < 0.05), but only HBF women decreased BF (p < 0.01). HBF women were less insulin sensitive at baseline compared to NBF women (p < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity increased 95 % and INS0-60/GLC0-60 decreased 32 % following PRT in NBF, but not HBF or C (p < 0.05). After training, enhanced insulin sensitivity was inversely related to decreased INS0-60/GLC0-60 (r = -0.71, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (r = -0.71, p < 0.001), and insulin AUC (r = -0.85, p < 0.001). Seven weeks of PRT increases insulin sensitivity and reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in NBF, but not HBF women. Obesity attenuates exercise-induced improvements in glucose regulation in young non-diabetic women.Arbeitsphysiologie 09/2013; 113(12). DOI:10.1007/s00421-013-2725-5 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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- "In the main part of the analysis, PA was assessed by a single question with responses measured on a 3-point Likert scale, which asked whether the subject was less active (score = 1), about the same (score = 2) or more active (score = 3) than his age peers. This single question was validated against a more objective measure which was MET × h/week of PA (Cheng et al., 2007; Lagerros and Lagiou, 2007; McCullough et al., 2000). This measure was constructed based on individual leisure-time activities that were given an intensity score assessed by the metabolic equivalent or MET which was further multiplied by duration of this particular activity and frequency converted to per week unit. "
ABSTRACT: Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2217 US young adults aged 20-39years from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined associations between major depressive disorder (MDD), dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and measured body mass index (BMI) controlling for socio-demographic factors. Further, structural equation models (SEM) were fit to test pathway explaining SES disparities in BMI through MDD and lifestyle factors. Recent prevalence of MDD was lower among young US men than women (6.4% vs. 9.2%) although their prevalence of obesity was similar (21.2% vs. 22.7%). Among women, MDD was associated with higher BMI and inversely associated with PA, but not among men. MDD was specifically associated with increased risk of morbid obesity (BMI>/=40) among women (OR: 2.88 (1.32, 6.30)). Using SEM, a main pathway linking SES to BMI among women was linking SES-->food insecurity-->MDD-->PA-->BMI. A main pathway linking MDD to BMI in both genders was going through PA rather than overall dietary quality. Gender and ethnic differences existed underlying how MDD, SES and lifestyle factors were associated with adiposity. Future prospective studies are needed to examine potential mechanisms using physiological markers of depression, lifestyle and obesity.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2009; 123(1-3):52-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2009.09.021 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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- "d fat mass , and in - creased fat - free and skeletal mass by 2 . 6 kg and 4 . 2 kg , respectively ( Abe et al . 2003 ) . Compared with the low - est category , men in the highest strength group had 44% lower risk of developing MS ( Jurca et al . 2005 ) . Strength training was also very important in improving insulin sensitivity in men and women ( Cheng et al . 2007 ) . As previously described , obesity , especially its ab - dominal pattern , increased the risk of hypertension and all pathologies of the MS . Greenfield et al . ( 2003 ) studied 684 female twins and reported that the group with regular engagement in recreational physical activ - ities had the same lowest blood pressure values found i"
ABSTRACT: Obesity and physical inactivity comprise an important worldwide epidemic that has been linked to the meta- bolic syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, renal, and many other metabolic disorders. Presenting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in selected world populations, this paper strongly discusses the pivotal role of physical activity and exercise in prevent- ing central obesity, metabolic syndrome and their complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance. Exercise recommendations to decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome and its compo- nents as well as public health policies to promote public engagement on exercise are described. Regular practice of aerobic physical activities, such as walking, as well as weight-bearing exercise training are impor- tant to improve cardiovascular fitness, change body composition, and prevent or manage metabolic syn- drome, obesity, diabetes, and other complications. ( J Exerc Sci FitVol 6 No 2 87-96 2008)