Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into the bone marrow (BM) is a prerequisite for establishment of hematopoiesis during development and following transplantation. However, the molecular interactions that control homing of HSCs, in particular, of fetal HSCs, are not well understood. Herein, we studied the role of the alpha6 and alpha4 integrin receptors for homing and engraftment of fetal liver (FL) HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) to adult BM by using integrin alpha6 gene-deleted mice and function-blocking antibodies. Both integrins were ubiquitously expressed in FL Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) (LSK) cells. Deletion of integrin alpha6 receptor or inhibition by a function-blocking antibody inhibited FL LSK cell adhesion to its extracellular ligands, laminins-411 and -511 in vitro, and significantly reduced homing of HPCs to BM. In contrast, the anti-integrin alpha6 antibody did not inhibit BM homing of HSCs. In agreement with this, integrin alpha6 gene-deleted FL HSCs did not display any homing or engraftment defect compared with wild-type littermates. In contrast, inhibition of integrin alpha4 receptor by a function-blocking antibody virtually abrogated homing of both FL HSCs and HPCs to BM, indicating distinct functions for integrin alpha6 and alpha4 receptors during homing of fetal HSCs and HPCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are routinely used to reconstitute hematopoiesis after myeloablation; however, transplantation efficacy and multilineage reconstitution can be limited by inadequate HSC number, or poor homing, engraftment or self-renewal. We have demonstrated that mouse and human HSC express prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors, and that short-term ex vivo exposure of HSC to PGE2 enhances their homing, survival and proliferation, resulting in increased long-term repopulating cell and competitive repopulating unit (CRU) frequency. HSC pulsed with PGE2 are more competitive, as determined by head-to-head comparison in a competitive transplantation model. Enhanced HSC frequency and competitive advantage is stable and maintained upon multiple serial transplantations, with full multi-lineage reconstitution. PGE2 increases HSC CXCR4 mRNA and surface expression and enhances their migration to SDF-1α in vitro and homing to bone marrow in vivo and stimulates HSC entry into and progression through cell cycle. In addition, PGE2 enhances HSC survival, associated with an increase in Survivin mRNA and protein expression and reduction in intracellular active caspase-3. While PGE2 pulse of HSC promotes HSC self-renewal, blockade of PGE2 biosynthesis with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in expansion of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). We co-administered NSAIDs along with the mobilizing agent granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and evaluations of limiting dilution transplants, assays monitoring neutrophil and platelet recoveries, and secondary transplantations, clearly indicate that NSAIDs facilitate mobilization of a hematopoietic graft with superior functional activity compared to the graft mobilized by G-CSF alone. Enhanced mobilization has also been confirmed in baboons mobilized with G-CSF and a NSAID. Increases in mobilization are the result of a reduction of signaling through the PGE2 receptor EP4, which results in marrow expansion and reduction in the osteoblastic HSC niche. We also identify a new role for cannabinoids, an eicosanoid with opposing functions to PGE2, in hematopoietic mobilization. Additionally, we demonstrate increased survival in lethally irradiated mice treated with PGE2, NSAIDs, or the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride. Our results define novel mechanisms of action whereby eicosanoids regulate HSC and HPC function, and characterize novel translational strategies for hematopoietic therapies. Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our understanding of the mechanisms by which intravenously transplanted hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) home to and engraft the bone marrow (BM) remains incomplete, but participation of adhesion molecules has been documented. We here demonstrate that blockade of the alpha6-integrin enhanced BM homing of human and nonhuman primate BM-derived HSPCs by >60% in the xenogeneic transplant model and led to significantly improved engraftment. The effect was limited to BM-derived HSPCs, as granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood or cord blood HSPCs express little or no alpha6 integrin. By contrast, despite high alpha6 integrin expression, no effect of alpha6 blockade on murine BM-HSPCs homing/engraftment was observed.
Stem cells and development 10/2008; 18(6):839-44. DOI:10.1089/scd.2008.0269 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The global gene expression profiles of adult and fetal murine prostate stem cells were determined to define common and unique regulators whose misexpression might play a role in the development of prostate cancer.
A distinctive core of transcriptional regulators common to both fetal and adult primitive prostate cells was identified as well as molecules that are exclusive to each population. Elements common to fetal and adult prostate stem cells include expression profiles of Wnt, Shh and other pathways identified in stem cells of other organs, signatures of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor, and up-regulation of components of the aldehyde dehydrogenase/retinoic acid receptor axis. There is also a significant lipid metabolism signature, marked by overexpression of lipid metabolizing enzymes and the presence of the binding motif for Srebp1. The fetal stem cell population, characterized by more rapid proliferation and self-renewal, expresses regulators of the cell cycle, such as E2f, Nfy, Tead2 and Ap2, at elevated levels, while adult stem cells show a signature in which TGF-beta has a prominent role. Finally, comparison of the signatures of primitive prostate cells with previously described profiles of human prostate tumors identified stem cell molecules and pathways with deregulated expression in prostate tumors including chromatin modifiers and the oncogene, Erg.
Our data indicate that adult prostate stem or progenitor cells may acquire characteristics of self-renewing primitive fetal prostate cells during oncogenesis and suggest that aberrant activation of components of prostate stem cell pathways may contribute to the development of prostate tumors.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(5):e5722. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0005722 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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