Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics for substance use in schizophrenia patients.
ABSTRACT This study examined the influence of medication class (atypical antipsychotic, typical antipsychotic and no medication) and compliance on substance use outcomes for schizophrenia patients in the community.
N=362 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were followed for 3 years in a naturalistic study with structured interviews at 6-month intervals. Multivariable time-series analysis was performed using propensity-score adjustment for selection to medication class.
Participants who were compliant with atypical antipsychotic medications for 90 days or more during each 6-month period were significantly less likely to use substances during the next 6-month period than patients who were compliant with typical antipsychotics or those who were not prescribed either type of medication for at least 90 days.
Atypical antipsychotics may offer an advantage in reducing substance use among schizophrenia patients. For patients to benefit from atypical antipsychotics, treatment should focus on enhancing compliance and integrating substance use treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Treatment efficacy in schizophrenia is typically defined in terms of symptom reduction. However, new antipsychotic medications could potentially have an impact on aspects of disability, such as neurocognitive deficits. The authors evaluated the effects of risperidone on verbal working memory, a memory component of theoretical interest because of its link to prefrontal activity and of practical interest because of its link to psychosocial rehabilitation. Verbal working memory of 59 treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients was assessed as part of a randomized, double-blind comparison of treatment with risperidone and haloperidol. Verbal working memory was measured under both distracting and nondistracting conditions at baseline and after 4 weeks of both fixed- and flexible-dose pharmacotherapy. Risperidone treatment had a greater beneficial effect on verbal working memory than haloperidol treatment across testing conditions (with and without distraction) and study phases (fixed and flexible dose). The treatment effect remained significant after the effects of benztropine cotreatment, change in psychotic symptoms, and change in negative symptoms were controlled. Neither benztropine status nor symptom changes were significantly related to memory performance. Treatment with risperidone appears to exert a more favorable effect on verbal working memory than treatment with a conventional neuroleptic. The beneficial effect appears to be due, at least partially, to a direct effect of the drug, possibly through antagonism of the 5-HT2A receptor. Results from this study suggest that pharmacotherapeutic efficacy in schizophrenia treatment could be broadened to include impact on neurocognitive abilities.American Journal of Psychiatry 07/1997; 154(6):799-804. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Mental Health initiated the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) program to evaluate the effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in typical settings and populations so that the study results will be maximally useful in routine clinical situations. The CATIE schizophrenia trial blends features of efficacy studies and large, simple trials to create a pragmatic trial that will provide extensive information about antipsychotic drug effectiveness over at least 18 months. The protocol allows for subjects who receive a study drug that is not effective to receive subsequent treatments within the context of the study. Medication dosages are adjusted within a defined range according to clinical judgment. The primary outcome is all-cause treatment discontinuation because it represents an important clinical endpoint that reflects both clinician and patient judgments about efficacy and tolerability. Secondary outcomes include symptoms, side effects, neurocognitive functioning, and cost-effectiveness. Approximately 50 clinical sites across the United States are seeking to enroll a total of 1,500 persons with schizophrenia. Phase 1 is a double-blinded randomized clinical trial comparing treatment with the second generation antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone to perphenazine, a midpotency first generation antipsychotic. If the initially assigned medication is not effective, subjects may choose one of the following phase 2 trials: (1) randomization to open-label clozapine or a double-blinded second generation drug that was available but not assigned in phase 1; or (2) double-blinded randomization to ziprasidone or another second generation drug that was available but not assigned in phase 1. If the phase 2 study drug is discontinued, subjects may enter phase 3, in which clinicians help subjects select an open-label treatment based on individuals' experiences in phases 1 and 2.Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2003; 29(1):15-31. · 8.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the efficacy of atypical neuroleptics for decreasing craving and drug relapses during protracted withdrawal in individuals dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and cocaine dependence. We conducted a 6-week, open-label pilot study comparing risperidone with typical neuroleptics in a sample of withdrawn cocaine-dependent schizophrenia patients. Preliminary results suggest that individuals treated with risperidone had significantly less cue-elicited craving and substance abuse relapses at study completion. Further, they showed a trend toward a greater reduction in negative and global symptoms of schizophrenia. Atypical neuroleptics may help reduce craving and relapses in this population. Future research should include more rigorous double-blind placebo-controlled studies with this class of medications.Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 10/2002; 47(7):671-5. · 2.48 Impact Factor