To evaluate tenofovir-related nephropathy, we quantified calculated glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and renal tubular function in 46 tenofovir-treated patients and 25 without tenofovir. We also analysed patients who stopped tenofovir for drug-related nephrotoxicity at our clinic. Tenofovir use combined with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, but not with protease inhibitors, resulted in a significant increase in calculated GFR. Tenofovir use was associated with significantly lower phosphatemia and a marginally increased fractional excretion of uric acid, but no other signs of tubulopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tenofovir (TDF) use has been associated with proximal renal tubulopathy, reduced calculated glomerular filtration rates (cGFR) and losses in bone mineral density. Bone resorption could result in a compensatory osteoblast activation indicated by an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (sAP). A few small studies have reported a positive correlation between renal phosphate losses, increased bone turnover and sAP.
We analysed sAP dynamics in patients initiating (n = 657), reinitiating (n = 361) and discontinuing (n = 73) combined antiretroviral therapy with and without TDF and assessed correlations with clinical and epidemiological parameters.
TDF use was associated with a significant increase of sAP from a median of 74 U/I (interquartile range 60-98) to a plateau of 99 U/I (82-123) after 6 months (P < 0.0001), with a prompt return to baseline upon TDF discontinuation. No change occurred in TDF-sparing regimes. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses revealed a positive correlation between sAP and TDF use (P < or = 0.003), but no correlation with baseline cGFR, TDF-related cGFR reduction, changes in serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) or active hepatitis C.
We document a highly significant association between TDF use and increased sAP in a large observational cohort. The lack of correlation between TDF use and sALT suggests that the increase in sAP is because of the bone isoenzyme and indicates stimulated bone turnover. This finding, together with published data on TDF-related renal phosphate losses, this finding raises concerns that TDF use could result in osteomalacia with a loss in bone mineral density at least in a subset of patients. This potentially severe long-term toxicity should be addressed in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease in patients with HIV is being recognized as one of the most frequent comorbidities of this disease and consequently much research is currently being performed in this area. The possible manifestations are highly varied and consequently a high index of suspicion is required. Appropriate investigations should be performed from the moment patients first seek care to rule out renal disease and to prevent worsening, with the diagnostic or therapeutic measures that may subsequently be required. One of the most common problems is nephrotoxicity caused by some drugs and cases associated with tenofovir are becoming more frequently described. However, there is wide clinical experience with this drug and renal toxicity associated with its use is uncommon both in clinical trials and in clinical practice. Familiarity with what may happen, the associated factors and appropriate patient management are essential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) is highly effective in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current report describes extended safety and efficacy data on 32 animals that received prolonged (>or=1- to 13-year) daily subcutaneous TFV regimens. The likelihood of renal toxicity (proximal renal tubular dysfunction [PRTD]) correlated with plasma drug concentrations, which depended on the dosage regimen and age-related changes in drug clearance. Below a threshold area under the concentration-time curve for TFV in plasma of approximately 10 microg x h/ml, an exposure severalfold higher than that observed in humans treated orally with 300 mg TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF), prolonged TFV administration was not associated with PRTD based on urinalysis, serum chemistry analyses, bone mineral density, and clinical observations. At low-dose maintenance regimens, plasma TFV concentrations and intracellular TFV diphosphate concentrations were similar to or slightly higher than those observed in TDF-treated humans. No new toxicities were identified. The available evidence does not suggest teratogenic effects of prolonged low-dose TFV treatment; by the age of 10 years, one macaque, on TFV treatment since birth, had produced three offspring that were healthy by all criteria up to the age of 5 years. Despite the presence of viral variants with a lysine-to-arginine substitution at codon 65 (K65R) of RT in all 28 SIV-infected animals, 6 animals suppressed viremia to undetectable levels for as long as 12 years of TFV monotherapy. In conclusion, these findings illustrate the safety and sustained benefits of prolonged TFV-containing regimens throughout development from infancy to adulthood, including pregnancy.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.