Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.
ABSTRACT Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid present in the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabinaceae) and a common ingredient of beer. Recently, xanthohumol has gained considerable interest due to its potential cancer chemo-preventive effect. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible anti-genotoxic activity of xanthohumol in metabolically competent human hepatoma HepG2 cells, by use of the comet assay. Xanthohumol by itself was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic to the cells at concentrations below 10microM. However, a significant protective effect against the pro-carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was observed at concentrations as low as 0.01microM. In cells treated with xanthohumol in combination with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) - an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - no protective effect was observed and xanthohumol also showed no significant scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. On the other hand, HepG2 cells pre-treated with xanthohumol showed significantly reduced levels of t-BOOH-induced DNA strand breaks, indicating that its protective effect is mediated by induction of cellular defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. As xanthohumol is known to be an effective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes and an inducer of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR), our findings can be explained by an inhibition of metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens and/or by induction of carcinogen-detoxifying and anti-oxidative enzymes by xanthohumol. These results provide evidence that xanthohumol displays anti-genotoxic activity in metabolically competent human cells.
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ABSTRACT: Although they are known to be effective antidiabetic agents, little is published about the toxic effects of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibitors, such as etomoxir (ET). These compounds inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by irreversibly binding to CPT-1 and preventing entry of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 1 mM etomoxir for 6 h caused significant modulations in the expression of several redox-related and cell cycle mRNAs as measured by microarray analysis. Upregulated mRNAs included heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), glutathione reductase (GSR), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1 [p21(waf1)]) and Mn+ superoxide dismutase precursor (SOD2); while cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and heat shock 70kD protein 1 (HSPA1A) were downregulated. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the significant changes in 4 of 4 mRNAs assayed (CYP1A1, HO1, GSR, CDKN1), and identified 3 additional mRNA changes; 2 redox-related genes, gamma-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) and thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD1) and 1 DNA replication gene, topoisomerase IIalpha (TOP2A). Temporal changes in selected mRNA levels were examined by RT-PCR over 11 time points from 15 min to 24 h postdosing. CYP1A1 exhibited a 38-fold decrease by 4 h, which rebounded to a 39-fold increase by 20 h. GCLM and TXNRD1 exhibited 13- and 9-fold increases, respectively at 24 h. Etomoxir-induced oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism were confirmed by a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and ATP levels, and by concurrent increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and superoxide generation. This is the first report of oxidative stress caused by etomoxir.Toxicological Sciences 08/2002; 68(1):93-101. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monkey kidney COS1 cells transiently transfected with plasmids pMT2-cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), pMT2-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase), and pMT2-NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1 or DT diaphorase), individually or in combination, expressed significantly elevated levels of the respective enzyme(s). The transfected cells were homogenized to break cell membranes without affecting the nuclei and incubated with benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to determine the role of cDNA-encoded enzymes in metabolic activation and/or detoxification of BP. These studies were performed by measuring the capacity of the transfected cells to form DNA adducts as determined by 32P postlabeling and protein adduct detection. Cotransfection of the COS1 cells with cDNAs encoding CYP1A1 and P450 reductase resulted in eight distinct BP-DNA adducts. Inclusion of cDNA encoding NQO1 along with CYP1A1 and P450 reductase in transfection reduced the number of DNA adducts to six. The two lost DNA adducts were specifically eliminated due to the presence of cDNA-derived NQO1 activity. Subsequent experiments with BP-1,6-quinone, BP-3,6-quinone, and BP-6,12-quinone identified these two adducts as those of BP quinones. In an in vitro system, BP-3,6-quinone produced two adducts with deoxyguanosine (dG) but not with dA, dC, and dT. Furthermore, the positions of BP-3,6-quinone-dG adducts on TLC plate correspond to those that are prevented by cDNA-derived NQO1, thus identifying these adducts as BP quinones of dG. In addition, NQO1 reduced the amount of protein-BP adducts generated by CYP1A1 and P450 reductase into transfected COS1 cells. These results show that semiquinones can directly bind to DNA and demonstrate that NQO1 activity can specifically reduce the binding of quinone metabolites of BP generated by CYP1A1 and P450 reductase to DNA and protein.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1994; 91(18):8413-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human hepatoma line (Hep G2) has retained the activities of various phase I and phase II enzymes which play a crucial role in the activation/detoxification of genotoxic procarcinogens and reflect the metabolism of such compounds in vivo better than experimental models with metabolically incompetent cells and exogenous activation mixtures. In the last years, methodologies have been developed which enable the detection of genotoxic effects in Hep G2 cells. Appropriate endpoints are the induction of 6-TGr mutants, of micronuclei and of comets (single cell gel electrophoresis assay). It has been demonstrated that various classes of environmental carcinogens such as nitrosamines, aflatoxins, aromatic and heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be detected in genotoxicity assays with Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, it has been shown that these assays can distinguish between structurally related carcinogens and non-carcinogens, and positive results have been obtained with rodent carcinogens (such as safrole and hexamethylphosphoramide) which give false negative results in conventional in vitro assays with rat liver homogenates. Hep G2 cells have also been used in antimutagenicity studies and can identify mechanisms not detected in conventional in vitro systems such as induction of detoxifying enzymes, inactivation of endogenously formed DNA-reactive metabolites and intracellular inhibition of activating enzymes.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 07/1998; 402(1-2):185-202. · 3.90 Impact Factor