Acute HIV infection: The impact of anti-retroviral treatment on cellular immune responses

Duke University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.
Clinical & Experimental Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.04). 09/2007; 149(2):211-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03437.x
Source: PubMed


The overall value of initiating anti-retroviral therapy during the acute phase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains unclear. From a clinical perspective, the lack of data from controlled randomized clinical trials limits understanding of long-term effects of treatment on the clinical course of HIV infection. Based on available data, the impact of anti-retroviral therapy during acute infection on the immune response against HIV-1 is not particularly encouraging. Recent observations on the very early depletion of lymphocyte reservoirs in the gastrointestinal tract may partially explain the limited benefit of anti-retroviral therapy initiated during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. This may also help to explain the dichotomy between early observations demonstrating apparent immunological benefit with early anti-retroviral treatment that were associated none the less with inability to control viral replication following treatment interruption.

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