Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by p53: a new role for the guardian of the genome
ABSTRACT The p53 tumor suppressor protein has long been recognized as the central factor protecting humans from cancer. It has been famously dubbed "the guardian of the genome" due to its ability to respond to genotoxic stress, such as DNA damage and other stress signals, and to protect the genome by inducing a variety of biological responses including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. However, the tumor suppressive effects of p53 go far beyond its roles in mediating these three processes. There is growing evidence that p53 also exerts its effects on multiple aspects of tumor formation, including suppression of metastasis and, as summarized in this review, inhibition of new blood vessel development (angiogenesis). The p53 protein has been shown to limit angiogenesis by at least three mechanisms: (1) interfering with central regulators of hypoxia that mediate angiogenesis, (2) inhibiting production of proangiogenic factors, and (3) directly increasing the production of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors. The combination of these effects allows p53 to efficiently shut down the angiogenic potential of cancer cells. Inactivation of p53, which occurs in approximately half of all tumors, reverses these effects; as a consequence, tumors carrying p53 mutations appear more vascularized and are often more aggressive and correlate with poor prognosis for treatment. Thus, the loss of functional p53 during tumorigenesis likely represents an essential step in the switch to an angiogenic phenotype that is displayed by aggressive tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft-tissue sarcoma. Complete surgical resection is the only curative means for localized disease; however, both radiation and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remain controversial for metastatic or unresectable disease. An increasing number of trials with novel targeted therapy of LPS have provided encouraging data during recent years. This review will provide an overview of the advances in our understanding of LPS and summarize the results of recent trials with novel therapies targeting different genetic and molecular aberrations for different subtypes of LPS.OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2015; 8:125-36. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S72722 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Triptolide has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects in several cancers. This study investigates the mechanism by which triptolide induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Gastric biopsies were collected for histological evaluation and detection of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) expression. Gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of triptolide at indicated time points. The expression of MDM2, p53 protein, and target proteins including p21, PUMA, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was detected. Apoptosis of cells treated with or without triptolide was evaluated. Our results showed that MDM2 protein was overexpressed in gastric cancer (p < 0.01, resp.). Triptolide induced significant apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment with triptolide strongly inhibited the overexpression of MDM2 in gastric cancer cells, and this MDM2 inhibition led to increased levels of p53 protein and inhibition of XIAP (p < 0.05). However, triptolide failed to increase the expression of p53 target protein p21 and PUMA (p > 0.05). In conclusion, triptolide may induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells via the inhibition of MDM2 overexpression in a p53-independent manner.Medical Oncology 11/2014; 31(11):270. DOI:10.1007/s12032-014-0270-7 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch's membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV.Molecules 11/2014; 19(11):17578-17603. DOI:10.3390/molecules191117578 · 2.10 Impact Factor