Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

Department of Nutrition , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 08/2007; 50(2):306-12. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.091041
Source: PubMed


Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration in free-living populations. We examined the relationship between the intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages and serum uric acid concentrations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002, a nationally representative sample of men and women. We included 4073 subjects (1988 men and 2085 women) >18 years of age in the current study. Dietary intake was assessed by a single 24-hour recall. We used multivariate linear regression to adjust for age, gender, intake of energy and alcohol, body mass index, use of diuretics, beta-blockers, and other covariates. Male subjects in the highest intake quartile of estimated intake of added sugars or sugar-sweetened drinks had higher plasma uric acid concentrations than those in the lowest intake quartiles (P<0.001 for both) after adjusting for potential confounders, whereas we did not observe significant associations for females (P for trend>0.2; P for interaction <0.01). Further research is needed to confirm causality of these associations and the observed difference by gender.

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Available from: Katherine L Tucker, Oct 07, 2014
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    • "Recent studies do show that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SB) can induce hyperuricemia [1,17,18]. Although these beverages do not contain purines, they do contain large quantities of sweeteners including sucrose (composed of 50% glucose and 50% fructose), fructose and high fructose corn syrup (typically composed of 45% glucose and 55% fructose) [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥ 5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day was 1.33 (95% CI; 1.04-1.70) and 1.35 (95% CI; 1.04-1.75) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to women who consume less than half a SB/day, independent of other covariables. Men and women with high SB consumption and a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 had greater risk for hyperuricemia than men and women with low SB consumption and normal BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the consumption of SB is associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults. However, longitudinal research is needed to confirm the association between SB intake and hyperuricemia.
    BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(1):445. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-445 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "This finding is compatible with data from NHANES (1988–1994) showing a higher risk for hyperuricemia with increased orange juice intake compared to subjects not consuming orange juice (p for trend ¼ 0.005) [7]. However, Gao et al. [8] reported no association of apple and pear or fruit juice intake with serum uric acid level. Interestingly, we also observed a close association between orange or orange juice intake and serum uric acid level in male subjects but not with apple or apple juice intake in linear regression analysis, whereas females showed no association of fruit or fruit juice consumption with serum uric acid level. "
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p < 0.001). Estimated amount of soft drink intake was associated with serum uric acid level in males (β = 0.001; p = 0.01) but not in females (β = 0.0005; p = 0.10). Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increased the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender.
    Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism 10/2013; 43(5). DOI:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2013.10.008 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Previously, Gao and colleagues [30] reported the influence of added sugar and sugar-sweetened drink intakes (containing both glucose and fructose) on the concentrations of serum uric acid in the adult population from NHANES 2001-02 database, but this work did not examine relationships specific to fructose intake. Based on the different model conditions, subjects in the highest sugar intake quartile had 3.8-6.6% "
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    ABSTRACT: High serum uric acid concentration (hyperuricemia) has been studied for its relationship with multiple adverse health outcomes, such as metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies have produced inconsistent outcomes for the relationship between fructose intake and serum uric acid concentration. The association of dietary fructose intake with hyperuricemia risk in adults was examined using logistic regression and U.S. NHANES 1999-2004 databases. A total of 9,384 subjects, between the ages 20 and 80 years, without diabetes, cancer, or heart disease, were included. The highest added or total fructose intake (quartiles by grams or % energy) was not associated with an increase of hyperuricemia risk compared to the lowest intake with or without adjustment (odds ratios = 0.515-0.992). The associations of alcohol and fiber intakes with the risk were also determined. Compared to the lowest intake, the highest alcohol intake was associated with increased mean serum uric acid concentration (up to 16%, P < 0.001) and hyperuricemia risk (odds ratios = 1.658-1.829, P = 0.057- < 0.001); the highest fiber intake was correlated with decreases of uric acid concentration (up to 7.5%, P < 0.002) and lower risk (odds ratios = 0.448-0.478, P = 0.001- < 0.001). Adults who were over 50 y old, male, or obese had significantly greater risk. The data show that increased dietary fructose intake was not associated with increased hyperuricemia risk; while increased dietary alcohol intake was significantly associated with increased hyperuricemia risk; and increased fiber intake was significantly associated with decreased hyperuricemia risk. These data further suggest a potential effect of fructose consumption in an ordinary diet on serum uric acid differs from results found in some short-term studies using atypical exposure and/or levels of fructose administration.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 03/2010; 7(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-7-16 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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