Cardiovascular molecular imaging
ABSTRACT The goal of this review is to highlight how molecular imaging will impact the management and improved understanding of the major cardiovascular diseases that have substantial clinical impact and research interest. These topics include atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, myocardial viability, heart failure, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Traditional methods of evaluation for these diseases will be presented first, followed by methods that incorporate conventional and molecular imaging approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Iron oxide core nanoparticles are attractive imaging agents because their material properties allow the tuning of pharmacokinetics as well as the attachment of multiple moieties to their surface. In addition to affinity ligands, these include fluorochromes and radioisotopes for detection with optical and nuclear imaging. As the iron oxide core can be detected by MRI, options for combining imaging modalities are manifold. Already, preclinical imaging strategies have combined noninvasive imaging with higher resolution techniques, such as intravital microscopy, to gain unprecedented insight into steady‐state biology and disease. Going forward, hybrid iron oxide nanoparticles will help to merge modalities, creating a synergy that will enable imaging in basic research and, potentially, also in the clinic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.NMR in Biomedicine 07/2013; 26(7). DOI:10.1002/nbm.2872 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review focuses on molecular imaging using various radioligands for the tissue characterization of patients with heart failure. (123)I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), as a marker of adrenergic neuron function, plays an important role in risk stratification in heart failure and may be useful for predicting fatal arrhythmias that may require implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment. MIBG has also been used for monitoring treatment effects under various medications. Various positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands have been introduced for the quantitative assessment of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function in vivo. (11)C-hydroxyephedrine, like MIBG, has potential for assessing the severity of heart failure. Our PET study using the β-receptor antagonist (11)C-CGP 12177 in patients with heart failure showed a reduction of β-receptor density, indicating downregulation, in most of the patients. More studies are needed to confirm the clinical utility of these molecular imaging modalities for the management of heart failure patients.10/2013; 1(5):341-351. DOI:10.1007/s40336-013-0034-y
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events are the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Atherosclerosis develops insidiously and the initial manifestation is usually sudden cardiac death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging is a valuable tool to identify the disease at an early stage before fatal manifestations occur. Among the various molecular imaging techniques, this review mainly focuses on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of atherosclerosis. The targets and pathways that have been investigated to date for PET imaging of atherosclerosis include: glycolysis, cell membrane metabolism (phosphatidylcholine synthesis), integrin αvβ3, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLr), natriuretic peptide clearance receptors (NPCRs), fatty acid synthesis, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), macrophages, platelets, etc. Many PET tracers have been investigated clinically for imaging of atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions by PET imaging can help to prevent the premature death caused by atherosclerosis, and smooth translation of promising PET tracers into the clinic is critical to the benefit of patients.Theranostics 11/2013; 3(11):894-902. DOI:10.7150/thno.5506 · 7.83 Impact Factor