The goal of this review is to highlight how molecular imaging will impact the management and improved understanding of the major cardiovascular diseases that have substantial clinical impact and research interest. These topics include atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, myocardial viability, heart failure, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Traditional methods of evaluation for these diseases will be presented first, followed by methods that incorporate conventional and molecular imaging approaches.
"Since the beginning of the 21st century, the field of molecular imaging has expanded tremendously 27-34. Many of the preclinical imaging studies focused on atherosclerosis involved the use of MRI and/or optical techniques, for which excellent recent reviews are available 4, 6, 11, 35-37. A few other imaging techniques have also been employed for imaging of atherosclerosis such as Raman spectroscopy, which measures the light-scattering effects 23, 38. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events are the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Atherosclerosis develops insidiously and the initial manifestation is usually sudden cardiac death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging is a valuable tool to identify the disease at an early stage before fatal manifestations occur. Among the various molecular imaging techniques, this review mainly focuses on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of atherosclerosis. The targets and pathways that have been investigated to date for PET imaging of atherosclerosis include: glycolysis, cell membrane metabolism (phosphatidylcholine synthesis), integrin αvβ3, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLr), natriuretic peptide clearance receptors (NPCRs), fatty acid synthesis, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), macrophages, platelets, etc. Many PET tracers have been investigated clinically for imaging of atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions by PET imaging can help to prevent the premature death caused by atherosclerosis, and smooth translation of promising PET tracers into the clinic is critical to the benefit of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a strong need in biomedical science for high-resolution molecular imaging in ro- dents. Here we present a stationary Multiple Pinhole (MP) Single Photon Emission Com- puted Tomography system (U-SPECT-II) dedicated for imaging at the sub-mm (rat) and sub- half- mm (mice) resolution level. U-SPECT-II uses three large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma detectors placed in a triangular set-up to obtain high pinhole magnification factors, resulting in high image resolution. In the center of the system cylindrical pinholes (PH) of different sizes can be mounted, creating a large number of projection images on the detectors. Each collimator has a total of 75 gold or tungsten PH distributed over 5 rings. Dedicated shielding prevents overlap of projections. The detectors feature digital read-out and signal process- ing that produce linearity-, energy-, and uniformity-corrected list mode data. Digital inputs
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