The Capsule Encoding the viaB Locus Reduces Interleukin-17 Expression and Mucosal Innate Responses in the Bovine Intestinal Mucosa during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8645, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 10/2007; 75(9):4342-50. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01571-06
Source: PubMed


The viaB locus contains genes for the biosynthesis and export of the Vi capsular antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Wild-type serotype Typhi induces less CXC chemokine production in tissue culture models than does an isogenic viaB mutant. Here we investigated the in vivo relevance of these observations by determining whether the presence of the viaB region prevents inflammation in two animal models of gastroenteritis. Unlike S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, serotype Typhi or a serotype Typhi viaB mutant did not elicit marked inflammatory changes in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model. In contrast, infection of bovine ligated ileal loops with a serotype Typhi viaB mutant resulted in more fluid accumulation and higher expression of the chemokine growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) than did infection with the serotype Typhi wild type. There was a marked upregulation of IL-17 expression in both the bovine ligated ileal loop model and the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model, suggesting that this cytokine is an important component of the inflammatory response to infection with Salmonella serotypes. Introduction of the cloned viaB region into serotype Typhimurium resulted in a significant reduction of GROalpha and IL-17 expression and in reduced fluid secretion. Our data support the idea that the viaB region plays a role in reducing intestinal inflammation in vivo.

Download full-text


Available from: Manuela Raffatellu,
6 Reads
  • Source
    • "Chemokines are signaling molecules responsible for recruitment of leukocytes. Previous work demonstrated increased expression of C-X-C chemokines during Salmonella infection in the bovine intestine [9], [32], [52], [53]. For additional confirmation of microarray results, gene expression patterns from previously published work were compared to the expression patterns in the data presented here and were found to be consistent. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes enterocolitis with diarrhea and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) influx into the intestinal mucosa in humans and calves. The Salmonella Type III Secretion System (T3SS) encoded at Pathogenicity Island I translocates Salmonella effector proteins SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD, and SopE2 into epithelial cells and is required for induction of diarrhea. These effector proteins act together to induce intestinal fluid secretion and transcription of C-X-C chemokines, recruiting PMNs to the infection site. While individual molecular interactions of the effectors with cultured host cells have been characterized, their combined role in intestinal fluid secretion and inflammation is less understood. We hypothesized that comparison of the bovine intestinal mucosal response to wild type Salmonella and a SipA, SopABDE2 effector mutant relative to uninfected bovine ileum would reveal heretofore unidentified diarrhea-associated host cellular pathways. To determine the coordinated effects of these virulence factors, a bovine ligated ileal loop model was used to measure responses to wild type S. Typhimurium (WT) and a ΔsipA, sopABDE2 mutant (MUT) across 12 hours of infection using a bovine microarray. Data were analyzed using standard microarray analysis and a dynamic bayesian network modeling approach (DBN). Both analytical methods confirmed increased expression of immune response genes to Salmonella infection and novel gene expression. Gene expression changes mapped to 219 molecular interaction pathways and 1620 gene ontology groups. Bayesian network modeling identified effects of infection on several interrelated signaling pathways including MAPK, Phosphatidylinositol, mTOR, Calcium, Toll-like Receptor, CCR3, Wnt, TGF-β, and Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton and Apoptosis that were used to model of host-pathogen interactions. Comparison of WT and MUT demonstrated significantly different patterns of host response at early time points of infection (15 minutes, 30 minutes and one hour) within phosphatidylinositol, CCR3, Wnt, and TGF-β signaling pathways and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e26869. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026869 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Another major inflammatory pathway in the mucosa is controlled by the release of IL-23. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 increase dramatically within 2–5 h post-infection in bovine or avian ligated loops.22,23 Such an early amplification of host inflammatory responses could involve the stimulation of antigen-experienced T cells by IL-23, inducing the release of IL-17 and IL-22. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against invading microorganisms by inducing a variety of inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. These responses are particularly important in the gastrointestinal tract, where the needs for efficient nutrient uptake and host defense collide. Many pathogens have evolved to specifically colonize the intestine, causing millions of cases of enteric infections a year. A paradigm of an enteric pathogen is Salmonella enterica, a gram-negative bacterium that causes a wide range of gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) lead to an acute intestinal inflammation in human and animal hosts, as a result of the bacterium invading the mucosa. A distinctive feature of Salmonella is that it has not only adapted to survive in a strong inflammatory environment, but it also uses this adaptation as a strategy to gain a growth advantage over the intestinal microbiota. We will use the model organism S. typhimurium to discuss the innate immune mechanisms employed by the mammalian gastrointestinal system and how the pathogen responds and subverts these mechanisms. In particular, we focus on the recognition of extra- and intra-cellular Salmonellae by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors of the TLR and NLR families, and how Salmonella might profit from the activation of these receptors.
    Gut Microbes 11/2011; 3(2):62-70. DOI:10.4161/gmic.19141
  • Source
    • "In addition, it has been reported that a switch from pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory mode occurred and inhibited production of cytokines in the acute phase of typhoid fever patients [39]. It can also be explained by the 'stealth' tactics of S. Typhi, evading recognition of TLR4 and TLR5, impairing identification of its invasion to prevent a typical antibacterial host response, which results in suppression of neutrophil recruitment [40] and weak induction of acute phase responses [41]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever, and remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Its pathogenesis is complex and host response is poorly understood. In Africa, typhoid fever can be a major cause of morbidity in young infected children. The onset of the illness is insidious and clinical diagnosis is often unreliable. Gold standard blood culture diagnostic services are limited, thus rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic test is essential in poor-resourced clinical settings. Routine typhoid fever vaccination is highly recommended but currently licensed vaccines provide only 55-75% protection. Recent epidemiological studies also show the rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant S. Typhi strains. High-throughput molecular technologies, such as microarrays, can dissect the molecular mechanisms of host responses which are S. Typhi-specific to provide a comprehensive genomic component of immunological responses and suggest new insights for diagnosis and treatment. Global transcriptional profiles of S. Typhi-infected young Nigerian children were obtained from their peripheral blood and compared with that of other bacteremic infections using Agilent gene expression microarrays. The host-response profiles of the same patients in acute vs. convalescent phases were also determined. The top 96-100 differentially-expressed genes were identified and four genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Gene clusters were obtained and functional pathways were predicted by DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery). Transcriptional profiles from S. Typhi-infected children could be distinguished from those of other bacteremic infections. Enriched gene clusters included genes associated with extracellular peptides/components such as lipocalin (LCN2) and systemic immune response which is atypical in bacterial invasion. Distinct gene expression profiles can also be obtained from acute vs. convalescent phase during typhoid fever infection. We found novel down-regulation of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters genes such as ABCA7, ABCC5, and ABCD4 and ATPase activity as the highest enriched pathway. We identified unique extracellular components and ABC transporters gene enrichments in typhoid fever-infected Nigerian children, which have never been reported. These enriched gene clusters may represent novel targeted pathways to improve diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and next-generation vaccine strategies for typhoid fever in Africa.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 11(1):241. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-11-241 · 2.61 Impact Factor
Show more