Pediatric hodgkin lymphoma: maximizing efficacy and minimizing toxicity.
ABSTRACT Historically, both adult and childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) were treated with full-dose (35-45 Gy) extended-field radiation therapy (RT). Although this treatment was the first to produce reliable disease control, the resulting late toxicity led pediatric oncologists to pioneer the use of combined chemotherapy and low-dose (15-25 Gy) involved-field RT for all stages of HL. Currently, standard treatment of childhood HL is risk adapted; those with favorable risk disease typically receive 2 to 4 cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy with low-dose IFRT, whereas those with higher-risk disease receive more intensive chemotherapy before IFRT. This approach produces long-term survival rates >90% while limiting exposure to anthracyclines, alkylators, and radiation to normal tissues. In contrast to adult HL, IFRT remains an important component of the treatment of advanced-stage HL in pediatric patients. Current clinical trials for children with HL aim to further segregate patients into risk strata such that those who are highly curable can receive less toxic therapy, whereas high-risk patients can receive augmented therapy. Response-adapted therapy, in which overall treatment intensity is modified according to the initial response to chemotherapy, is emerging as a potential means of further reducing therapy for some while maintaining high cure rates. The challenge is to refine therapy in a rare disease in which long-time intervals are necessary to observe an adequate number of events (treatment failure or late effects) to answer judicious questions.
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ABSTRACT: CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed.Pediatric Radiology 10/2010; 40(10):1592-602; quiz 1720-1. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Women treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) have an elevated risk of developing second breast cancer (SBC) compared with the general population. We planned this meta-analysis to quantify the long-term risk of SBC and analyze the contributing risk factors among HL survivors. According to predefined selection criteria, literature search identified 34 studies that were included in the analyses. After eliminating overlapping or duplicate data, 957 incidences of SBC were encountered in 24,505 females with HL over a median follow-up of 14.9 years. The medians: age at the diagnosis of HL, age at diagnosis of SBC, and latency since HL treatment to the development of SBC were 23.7, 35.0, and 17.7 years, respectively. The pooled relative risk (RR) of SBC was 8.23 (95% CI, 5.43-12.47, I² = 96%), with a median absolute excess rate of 22.9 per 10,000 person-years. The RR was found inversely related to age at diagnosis of HL with the highest rate (68.7; [95%CI, 28.08-168.11], I² = 79%), occurred in young patients (≤ 15 years old), where the RR in older women (≥ 40 years old) was not significant (0.55; [95% CI, 0.09-3.52]). Analysis of RR by 5-year increments since the treatment of HL showed that the risk was highest after 15-19 years of latency (13.87; [95% CI, 7.91-24.30], I² = 89%). Analysis of the effect of treatment modalities showed that the RR rates were (4.70; [95% CI, 3.28-6.75], I² = 74%), (5.65; [95%CI, 2.94-10.88], I² = 91%), and (1.19; [95% CI, 0.50-2.82], I2 = 65%), for radiotherapy (RT) only, combined RT and chemotherapy (CT), and CT only, respectively. To investigate the demonstrated heterogeneity, meta-regression analysis was performed when feasible. In most such analyses, the natural logarithm of RR was inversely associated with age at HL diagnosis. We conclude that, the current meta-analysis provided the most recent comprehensive estimate of the risk of SBC in a broad-range of HL survivors. Younger age at diagnosis proved to be a dominant risk factor. The obtained results would serve providing breast cancer screening recommendations for HL survivors.BMC Cancer 05/2012; 12:197. · 3.01 Impact Factor