The technique of distal pancreatectomy has been well described, both with en bloc resection of the spleen and with splenic preservation. Splenic preservation during pancreatic tail resection is desirable when oncologically appropriate, yet it is technically challenging, particularly with laparoscopic approaches. Skeletonization of the splenic artery and vein is associated with longer operative times and greater potential for bleeding. The authors report their experience with splenic preservation during laparoscopic pancreatic resection using ligation of the splenic vessels and preservation of the short gastric vessels.
A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent attempted laparoscopic pancreatic resection at Duke University Medical Center from July 2002 to October 2005. Charts were analyzed for demographic information, length of hospital stay, conversion, splenic preservation, and postoperative complications.
A total of 12 laparoscopic distal pancreatic resections were attempted for three men and nine women with a mean age was 55.8 years (range, 33-74 years). All 12 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy, 8 with splenic preservation. The spleen was removed from three patients using splenic hilar lesions that prevented splenic salvage. One patient required splenectomy secondary to more than 50% ischemia of the spleen. No patients with preoperatively diagnosed malignancy underwent splenic salvage. The final pathologic diagnosis included neuroendocrine tumors (n = 2), cystic serous (n = 4) and mucinous (n = 2) neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 1), pancreatitis (n = 2), and adenocarcinoma (n = 1). Two patients underwent conversion to open surgery for thickened parenchyma secondary to chronic pancreatitis (17%). There were no other conversions. There were three chemical leaks (25%) diagnosed by elevated drain amylase and low volume output, which were managed with intraoperatively placed drains removed at the initial postoperative clinic visit. There were three higher volume leaks (25%) that required extended or percutaneous drainage, with eventual removal. The average blood loss was 215 ml (range, 50-700 ml). The average operative time was 3 h and 41 min (range, 2 h 15 min to 5 h 58 min). The average length of hospital stay was 4 days (range, 2-7 days).
Splenic preservation should be performed when technically possible to decrease the morbidity of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. The choice to ligate the splenic vessels allows for shorter operative times with minimal perioperative morbidity and blood loss while maintaining the spleen.
"Historically, the most common complication following LDP and LDPS has been a persistent leak from the pancreatic remnant. Pryor et al. reported a 50% rate of pancreatic fistula formation . Unlike most, however, they categorized their leaks based on intervention and severity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent of minimally invasive techniques was marked by a paradigm shift towards the use of laparoscopy for benign distal pancreatic masses. Herein we describe one center's experience with laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.
A retrospective chart review was performed for all distal pancreatectomies completed laparoscopically from 1999 to 2009. Outcomes from those cases completed with a concurrent splenectomy were compared to the spleen-preserving procedures.
Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Seven had spleen-conserving operations. There was no difference in the mean estimated blood loss (316 versus 285 mL, P = .5) or operative time (179 versus 170 minutes, P = .9). The mean tumor size was not significantly different (3.1 versus 2.2 cm, P = .9). There was no difference in the average hospital stay (7.1 versus 7.0 days, P = .7). Complications in the spleen-preserving group included one iatrogenic colon injury, two pancreatic fistulas, and two cases of iatrogenic diabetes. In the splenectomy group, two developed respiratory failure, three acquired iatrogenic diabetes, and two suffered pancreatic fistulas (71% versus 41%, P = .4).
The laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is a safe operation with a low morbidity. Splenic conservation does not significantly increase the morbidity of the procedure.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 12/2009; 2009(1):846340. DOI:10.1155/2009/846340 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-inflammatory cystic lesions of the pancreas are increasingly recognized. Two distinct entities have been defined, i.e., intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). Ovarian-type stroma has been proposed as a requisite to distinguish MCN from IPMN. Some other distinct features to characterize IPMN and MCN have been identified, but there remain ambiguities between the two diseases. In view of the increasing frequency with which these neoplasms are being diagnosed worldwide, it would be helpful for physicians managing patients with cystic neoplasms of the pancreas to have guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of IPMN and MCN. The proposed guidelines represent a consensus of the working group of the International Association of Pancreatology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of pancreatic cystic lesions offers a challenge to clinicians. Mucinous cystic lesions pose a low risk of the development of neoplasia that must be taken into account in long-term management. Although the natural history has not been well defined, it is likely that malignant change in the mucinous epithelium takes place over years, very similar to what is observed with Barrett's esophagus. The traditional therapy of mucinous cystic lesions has been surgical resection. Lesions in the head of the pancreas will require a Whipple resection whereas tail lesions are managed with a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. In patients at high risk for surgical resection, the risk/benefit ratio may be excessively high, not supporting the use of resection therapy. Ethanol ablation therapy has been thoroughly studied in hepatic, renal, and thyroid cysts. Epithelial ablation with ethanol appears to be highly effective and relatively safe. Recently, ethanol ablation has been evaluated in pancreatic cystic neoplasms. In macrocystic lesions between 1 and 5 cm, ethanol lavage will result in epithelial ablation and cyst resolution in a high percentage of patients. Pancreatitis is rarely observed clinically and is not present in resection specimens. A randomised prospective clinical trial is currently underway.
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