Does PTSD occur in sentenced prison populations? A systematic literature review
ABSTRACT A systematic review of the literature on mental disorder in prisoners, published in 2002, made no mention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but indicators from other studies suggest that a history of serious and chronic trauma is common among offenders.
To conduct a systematic review of the literature with the specific questions: does any epidemiological study of sentenced prisoners include data on prevalence of PTSD while in prison? If so, what is the prevalence in this group?
Literature databases EMBASE, Medline, PsychInfo, PILOTS and SIGLE were searched. The Journal of Traumatic Stress was searched manually. Preliminary screening was conducted by reading abstracts of hundreds of papers. Ten exclusion criteria were then applied to the screened selection. Reference sections of all accessed papers were searched for any further studies.
One hundred and three potentially relevant papers were identified after preliminary screening. Four met all criteria for inclusion and suffered none of the exclusion criteria. PTSD rates ranged from 4% of the sample to 21%. Women were disproportionately affected.
All four papers suggested that the prevalence of PTSD among sentenced prisoners is higher than that in the general population, as reported elsewhere. Overall the findings suggest a likely need for PTSD treatment services for sentenced prisoners.
SourceAvailable from: Clive R Hollin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose. This review is concerned with the points of contact between two diverse literatures: first, the association between childhood abuse and the development of violent conduct; second, the effects of involvement in the perpetration of acts of violence.Method. The empirical literature in the two areas of concern is considered along with complementary explanations for the extant evidence.Results. There is a weight of evidence indicating that childhood abuse is associated with later violence alongside a literature that considers this association in terms of the traumatic effects of abuse. The perpetration of violent acts can have debilitating effects on the individual offender: these effects have also been considered in terms of trauma.Conclusion. It is suggested that there are potential advantages to adopting a trauma‐based framework to inform practice with violent young people. This suggestion raises several areas for research to inform the development of evidence‐based practice that are presented in outline form.Legal and Criminological Psychology 02/2012; 17(1). DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8333.2010.02002.x · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid that has shown promise for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related insomnia and nightmares as well as efficacy in the management of chronic pain. It has also been proposed for harm reduction in cannabis dependence. Its effectiveness for management of concurrent disorders in seriously mentally ill correctional populations has not been evaluated. This retrospective study of 104 male inmates with serious mental illness prescribed nabilone analyzes the indications, efficacy, and safety of its use. Medications discontinued with the initiation of nabilone were also reviewed. The results showed nabilone targeting a mean of 3.5 indications per patient, thus likely reducing polypharmacy risk. The mean final dosage was 4.0 mg. Results indicated significant improvement in PTSD-associated insomnia, nightmares, PTSD symptoms, and Global Assessment of Functioning and subjective improvement in chronic pain. Medications associated with greater risk for adverse effects or abuse than nabilone were often able to be discontinued with the initiation of nabilone, most often antipsychotics and sedative/hypnotics. There was no evidence of abuse within this high-risk population or reduction of efficacy when nabilone was given in powder form with water rather than as a capsule. This study supports the promise of nabilone as a safe, effective treatment for concurrent disorders in seriously mentally ill correctional populations. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are required to confirm our preliminary results. Follow-up in the community will be required to confirm effectiveness in harm reduction.Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 07/2014; 34(5). DOI:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000180 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially important, yet understudied, mental disorder to consider in models of criminal recidivism. The present study sought to address this gap in the literature with a large-scale secondary analysis of observational data from a sample of justice-involved persons with mental disorders. Administrative data were reviewed for 771 adult jail-detainees with mental disorders. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that PTSD was associated with a greater likelihood of general (arrest for any new charge) and serious (arrest for a new felony charge) recidivism during the year following the index arrest, after controlling for risk conferred by a recent history of arrest, demographic characteristics, and other mental disorders. Further, risk of rearrest for new charges was comparable for PTSD and substance use disorders. Findings show that PTSD increases risk for both general and serious recidivism and suggest it should be considered in interventions to reduce justice-system involvement.Criminal Justice and Behavior 09/2014; DOI:10.1177/0093854814556880 · 1.71 Impact Factor