Long-term persistence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in male genital tract secretions: implications for secondary transmission.
ABSTRACT Transmitted drug-resistant HIV slowly reverts in the blood to drug-sensitive virus. The environment of the male genital tract (MGT) may result in even slower rates of reversion to drug susceptibility.
We measured the decay of resistance in longitudinally collected blood and semen samples from 5 individuals newly infected with HIV containing resistance mutations to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). We also investigated the sexual transmission of HIV to and from these participants.
In 3 of the 5 individuals, NNRTI resistance persisted in blood and semen throughout follow-up (mean, 296 days after the estimated day of infection [EDI]). In the other 2 individuals, NNRTI resistance persisted in blood and semen for 871 and 1179 days after the EDI; however, even after NNRTI resistance had fully reverted in blood, it remained readily detectable in semen. Two transmission groups were identified among these participants--one as the recipient partner and the other as the source partner.
Transmitted drug-resistant HIV, which persists in blood for years, may revert to wild type even more slowly in the MGT. This prolonged persistence in the MGT may contribute to the high prevalence rates of transmitted drug resistance.
Article: HIV model parameter estimates from interruption trial data including drug efficacy and reservoir dynamics.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3-5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40198. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We characterized the evolution of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the male genital tract by examining blood- and semen-associated virus from experimentally and sham vaccinated rhesus monkeys during primary infection. At the time of peak virus replication, SIV sequences were intermixed between the blood and semen supporting a scenario of high-level virus "spillover" into the male genital tract. However, at the time of virus set point, compartmentalization was apparent in 4 of 7 evaluated monkeys, likely as a consequence of restricted virus gene flow between anatomic compartments after the resolution of primary viremia. These findings suggest that SIV replication in the male genital tract evolves to compartmentalization after peak viremia resolves.PLoS Pathogens 02/2011; 7(2):e1001293. · 9.13 Impact Factor
Article: X4 tropic multi-drug resistant quasi-species detected at the time of primary HIV-1 infection remain exclusive or at least dominant far from PHI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to analyze the evolution of resistance mutations (RM) and viral tropism of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains detected at primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). MDR HIV strain was defined as the presence of genotypic resistance to at least 1 antiretroviral of the 3 classes. Tropism determinations (CCR5 or CXCR4) were performed on baseline plasma HIV-RNA and/or PBMC-HIV-DNA samples, then during follow-up using population-based sequencing of V3 loop and phenotypic tests. Clonal analysis was performed at baseline for env, RT and protease genes, and for HIV-DNA env gene during follow-up. Five patients were eligible. At baseline, RT, protease and env clones from HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were highly homogenous for each patient; genotypic tropism was R5 in 3 (A,B,C) and X4 in 2 patients (D,E). MDR strains persisted in HIV-DNA throughout follow-up in all patients. For patient A, tropism remained R5 with concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Clonal analysis on Month (M) 78 HIV-DNA evidenced exclusively R5 (21/21) variants. In patient B, clonal analysis at M36 showed exclusively R5 variants (19/19) using both genotypic and phenotypic tests. In patient C, baseline tropism was R5 by genotypic test and R5/X4 by phenotypic test. An expansion of these X4 clones was evidenced by clonal analysis on M72 HIV-DNA (12/14 X4 and 2/14 R5 variants). In patient D, baseline tropism was X4 with concordance between both techniques and HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA remained X4-tropic up to M72, confirmed by the clonal analysis. Patient E harboured highly homogenous X4-using population at baseline; tropism was unchanged at M1 and M18. In all patients, the initial MDR population was highly homogenous initially, supporting the early expansion of a monoclonal population and its long-term persistence. X4-tropic variants present at baseline were still exclusive (patients D and E) or dominant (at least one time point, patient C) far from PHI.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23301. · 4.09 Impact Factor