Heterogenic Loss of the Wild-Type BRCA Allele in Human Breast Tumorigenesis
ABSTRACT For individuals genetically predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer through inheritance of a mutant BRCA allele, somatic loss of heterozygosity affecting the wild-type allele is considered obligatory for cancer initiation and/or progression. However, several lines of evidence suggest that phenotypic effects may result from BRCA haploinsufficiency.
Archival fixed and embedded tissue specimens from women with germ line deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were identified. After pathologic review, focal areas of normal breast epithelium, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma-in-situ, and invasive ductal carcinoma were identified from 14 BRCA1-linked and 9 BRCA2-linked breast cancers. Ten BRCA-linked prophylactic mastectomy specimens and 12 BRCA-linked invasive ovarian carcinomas were also studied. Laser catapult microdissection was used to isolate cells from the various pathologic lesions and corresponding normal tissues. After DNA isolation, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to quantitate the proportion of wild-type to mutant BRCA alleles in each tissue sample.
Quantitative allelotyping of microdissected cells revealed a high level of heterogeneity in loss of heterozygosity within and between preinvasive lesions and invasive cancers from BRCA1 and BRCA2 heterozygotes with breast cancer. In contrast, all BRCA-associated ovarian cancers displayed complete loss of the wild-type BRCA allele.
These data suggest that loss of the wild-type BRCA allele is not required for BRCA-linked breast tumorigenesis, which would have important implications for the genetic mechanism of BRCA tumor suppression and for the clinical management of this patient population.
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ABSTRACT: Nous avons étudié le transcriptome de neuf échantillons d'ARN extraits de cultures primaires de cellules non tumorales de l’épithélium de surface de l’ovaire (NOSE) provenant de quatre donneuses non porteuses de mutation, deux mutées sur BRCA1 et trois sur BRCA2, ainsi que de quatre échantillons d’ARN extraits de cultures primaires de cellules tumorales de l’ovaire (TOV) provenant de trois donneuses porteuses de mutation sur BRCA1 et une sur BRCA2. Nous avons identifié, pour la première fois, les signatures moléculaires associées à la présence d’une mutation de BRCA1 et BRCA2 dans les cellules NOSEs ainsi que la signature associée à la transformation tumorale des cellules NOSEs en TOVs chez les porteuses de mutation de BRCA1. Nous avons également localisé les domaines chromosomiques comportant des gènes corégulés en association avec la présence d’une mutation de BRCA1 dans les cellules NOSEs. Les allèles sauvage et muté de BRCA2 étaient exprimés dans les cellules TOVs provenant des porteuses de la mutation 8765delAG sur BRCA2. Nous avons observé que le niveau d’expression des transcrits de BRCA2 était plus élevé dans les cellules provenant des tumeurs ovariennes les plus agressives chez les femmes porteuses de la mutation 8765delAG sur BRCA2, les transcrits correspondants à l’allèle muté contribuant avec un pourcentage élevé du niveau d’expression total du gène. Le phénotype tumoral observé chez les Canadiennes Françaises porteuses de cette mutation pourrait résulter d’un effet de dosage de l’allèle muté. We analyzed the transcriptome of nine primary cultures of non-tumor ovarian surface epithelium cells (NOSE) from four non-carriers, two BRCA1 and three BRCA2 carriers, and four primary cultures of tumor ovarian cells (TOV) from three BRCA1 and one BRCA2 carriers. We identified the first molecular signatures associated with the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in NOSEs and the first molecular signature associated with the transformation from NOSEs to TOVs in French Canadian women carriers of BRCA1 mutation. Moreover, we localized some co-regulated chromosomal domains associated with the presence of a BRCA1 mutation in NOSE cells. Wild-type and mutated BRCA2 allelic transcripts were expressed in tumor cells from 8765delAG BRCA2 mutation carriers, with the highest level of BRCA2 transcript expression and the highest contribution of the mutated allele in cells originating from the most aggressive ovarian tumors. The observed phenotype in BRCA2-mutated cells as well as the aggressiveness of the tumor could result from a dosage effect of the BRCA2 mutated allele.
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated that familial breast cancers associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations differ in their morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Cancers associated with BRCA1 are poorly differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDCs) with higher mitotic counts and pleomorphism and less tubule formation than sporadic tumours. In addition, more cases with the morphological features of typical or atypical medullary carcinoma are seen in these patients. Breast carcinomas from BRCA2 mutation carriers tend to be of higher grade than sporadic age-matched controls. Regarding immunophenotypic features. BRCA1 tumours have been found to be more frequently oestrogen receptor- (ER) and progesterone receptor-(PR) negative, and p53-positive than age-matched controls, whereas these differences are not usually found in BRCA2-associated tumours. A higher frequency and unusual location of p53 mutations have been described in BRCA1/2 carcinomas. Furthermore, BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas show a low frequency of HER-2 expression. Recent studies have shown that most BRCA1 carcinomas belong to the basal cell phenotype, a subtype of high grade, highly proliferating ER/HER2-negative breast carcinoma characterized by the expression of basal or myoepithelial markers, such as basal keratins, P-cadherin, EGFR, etc. This phenotype occurs with a higher incidence in BRCA1 tumours than in sporadic carcinomas and is rarely found in BRCA2 carcinomas. Hereditary carcinomas not attributable to BRCA1/2 mutations have phenotypic similarities with BRCA2 tumours, but tend to be of lesser grade and lower proliferation index. The pathological features of hereditary breast cancer can drive specific treatment and influence the process of mutation screening.Disease markers 11/1999; 15(1-3):113-4. DOI:10.1155/1999/459486 · 2.17 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Computer aided stability and safety analysis of forklifts[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Forklift is a common type of material handling equipment. As a result of carrying various loads at varying speed and in different types of terrains, a forklift is susceptible to tipping over. This paper presents the development of a software to study the effects of loading, wheelbase size, vehicle speed, top-heaviness and inclination on the stability of forklifts. The goal is to bring more insight into the stability of forklifts, and to help improving their future design. The approach taken is to employ the concept of energy stability as a measure to indicate the potential overturning of the vehicle over each edge. A graphic interface is also developed to interactively demonstrate the results. The software package is applied to the stability analysis of a Caterpillar DP-90 forklift. The software is capable of indicating the bounds of many variables/parameters within which the forklift operates safely.Automation Congress, 2002 Proceedings of the 5th Biannual World; 02/2002