Hepatitis B and C virus infection in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos , PMB 12003, Idi Araba, Lagos.
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal 07/2007; 14(2):129-33.
Source: PubMed


This study was designed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV patients and evaluate the risk of infection compared with HIV negative control subjects.
This is a prospective case control study in which 240 HIV/AIDS patients and age and sex matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of HIV infection was based on a positive HIV screening test using Capillus test kits (Trinity Biotech PLC, Ireland) and confirmed using Western blot assay. HBsAg and anti-HCV were assayed by commercially available chromatographic immunoassay (SD BIOLINE).
Eleven (9.2%) of the 120 HIV/AIDS patients and 8 (7%) of the 120 control subjects were positive for the HBsAg (OR=1, p=0.27). HBeAg was detected in 3 of the 11 (27.3%) subjects with HIV/HBV co infections. HIV positive patients were 7 times more likely to have HCV infection than control patients (5.8% compared with 0.8%, OR=7.3, p= 0.03).
The lack of a strong association between HBV and HIV infection may be related to different exposure routes in this population where HBV infection is highly endemic and childhood infection almost universal. In this African population, HIV infection may be a super-infection of HBV infections contracted in childhood. This high HCV/HIV co-infection rate is consistent with the shared parenteral and sexual routes of transmission.

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    • "The HIV/HBV co infection rates (6%) detected in this study was found to be consistent with findings from other studies carried out in Kenya [22,50], Zambia [19,34], Cote d’ Ivore [24], Malawi [25], Nigeria [38], Ethiopia [41] and South Africa [39]. However, these findings were low compared to those previous obtained in Kenya (55.8%) among liver failure patients [43,44] Tanzania [32,51], Zambia [47], Botswana [42], Malawi [27], Nigeria [28,42,46,48], Ethiopia [40], Argentina [34] South Africa [37,40] (Table  3). "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals are growing worldwide health problems characterized by lack of effective vaccines, need for expensive treatment, chronicity of morbidity and associated mortality. Their prevalence and distribution patterns continue to vary across geographical locations with high prevalence being detected among high risk populations. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 infected individuals, blood samples were collected from consenting study subjects visiting comprehensive HIV clinics in Nairobi during the period between October and December 2009. Blood samples from volunteers were screened with ELISA tests for detecting HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. In a total of three (300) hundred infected individuals consisting of 129 (43%) males and 171 (57%) females 15.3% (46/300) were HIV-1 co-infected with either HBV or HCV or both, 10.3% (31/300) with HIV-1 and HCV and 6% (18/300) with HIV-1 and HBV infections. However, only three individuals (1%) were coinfected with the three viruses (HIV/HBV/HCV). Though, low levels of co-infection with all three viruses were reported, there could be higher prevalence rates than reported here especially among high risk populations.
    BMC Research Notes 09/2013; 6(1):363. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-6-363
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    • "The seroprevalence rates of HIV-HCV co-infection in this study was 5.0% which is almost comparable with the studies which were done in Nigeria (5.8%), Malawi (5.0%), Burkina Faso (4.8%) and Senegal (8.0%) [27,28,36,37]. However, the epidemiological survey of HCV in Ethiopia showed variation from 2-3% in the general population in early 1990s [38-40] and recently, the co-infection rates of HIV-HCV ranges from 3.6-13.3% in different reports [24,25,41-45]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The co-existence of viral hepatitis caused by HBV and HCV become common causes of severe liver complication and immunological impairment among HIV infected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and their correlation with CD4 and liver enzyme levels among HAART naïve HIV positive individuals. Method A Cross-sectional study was conducted from March-May, 2011 at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. HBV and HCV serological tests and liver enzymes as well as CD4 T cell level determination were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using structured questionnaire. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result Among 400 study participants, the overall prevalence of HIV-viral hepatitis co-infection was 42(11.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections were 20(5.6%), 18(5.0%) and 4(1.1%) respectively. Study participants who had HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infection have relatively raised mean liver enzyme levels (ALT, AST and ALP) than HIV mono-infected once. Individuals with HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infection also had a lower mean CD4 levels than HIV mono-infected study participants. The mean CD4 value in males was lower than females. Conclusion The prevalence of HBV and HCV was higher than reports from general population of the country. Raised levels of liver enzymes and lowered mean CD4 counts were seen in HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections. These findings underscore the importance of screening all HIV positive individuals before initiating antiretroviral treatment.
    Virology Journal 05/2013; 10(1):171. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-10-171 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    • "The difference is however not statistically significant. This observation is at par with a previous study by Lesi et al [22], but at variance with other reports [4, 25] with findings of older males being more co- infected in Nigeria. This higher rate of HIV/HCV co infection among females may have been accounted for by the fact that women of all ages are more likely than men to become infected with HIV and HCV during unprotected vaginal intercourse. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis co-infection with HIV is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This cross sectional study was carried out among HIV positive patients and HIV negative blood donors, HIV infected patients were recruited from the antiretroviral therapy clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, in Nigeria. The diagnosis of HIV infection among patients and predonation screening of control blood donors was carried out using Determine1/2 screening rapid kits. (Inverness Medical, Japan). Reactive patients' sera were confirmed with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (Elisa) based immuuocomb1&11 comb firm kits (Orgenics, Israel). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were assayed using 4(th) generation Dialab Elisa kits for patients and control sera. Dual presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was observed in 4(3.9%) of HIV infected patients, while 29(28.4%) and 15(14.7%) were repeatedly reactive for HBsAg and anti-HCV respectively. HIV negative blood donor controls have HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence of (22) 6.0% and (3) 0.8% respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis co infection is higher among the male study patients 16(50%) than the female32 (45.7%).p > 0.001.Data analysis was done with statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS,9) and Chi square tests. This study reveals a higher risk and prevalence of HBV and HCV co infections among HIV infected patients compared to HIV negative blood donors p < 0.001.
    Pan African Medical Journal 08/2012; 12(1):100.
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