Hepatitis B and C virus infection in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos , PMB 12003, Idi Araba, Lagos.
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal 07/2007; 14(2):129-33.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV patients and evaluate the risk of infection compared with HIV negative control subjects.
This is a prospective case control study in which 240 HIV/AIDS patients and age and sex matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of HIV infection was based on a positive HIV screening test using Capillus test kits (Trinity Biotech PLC, Ireland) and confirmed using Western blot assay. HBsAg and anti-HCV were assayed by commercially available chromatographic immunoassay (SD BIOLINE).
Eleven (9.2%) of the 120 HIV/AIDS patients and 8 (7%) of the 120 control subjects were positive for the HBsAg (OR=1, p=0.27). HBeAg was detected in 3 of the 11 (27.3%) subjects with HIV/HBV co infections. HIV positive patients were 7 times more likely to have HCV infection than control patients (5.8% compared with 0.8%, OR=7.3, p= 0.03).
The lack of a strong association between HBV and HIV infection may be related to different exposure routes in this population where HBV infection is highly endemic and childhood infection almost universal. In this African population, HIV infection may be a super-infection of HBV infections contracted in childhood. This high HCV/HIV co-infection rate is consistent with the shared parenteral and sexual routes of transmission.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Hepatitis B has been reported to be high in HIV-infected African populations. However, the impact of this co-infection on the survival of HIV-infected Africans on long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains poorly characterised. We investigated the impact of HBV/HIV co-infection on survival of HIV infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in a West African population. Methods This was a clinic-based cohort study of HIV-infected adults enrolled in Nigeria, West Africa. Study subjects (9,758) were screened for hepatitis B and hepatitis C at HAART initiation. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate probability of survival and to identify predictors of mortality respectively, based on hepatitis B surface antigen status. All patients had signed an informed written consent before enrolment into the study; and we additionally obtained permission for secondary use of data from the Harvard institutional review board. Results Patients were followed up for a median of 41 months (interquartile range: 30–62 months) during which, 181 (1.9%) patients died. Most of the deaths; 143 (79.0%) occurred prior to availability of Tenofovir. Among those that were on antiretroviral therapy, hepatitis B co-infected patients experienced a significantly lower survival than HIV mono-infected patients at 74 months of follow up (94% vs. 97%; p=0.0097). Generally, hepatitis B co-infection: HBsAg-positive/HIV-positive (Hazards Rate [HR]; 1.5: 95% CI 1.09–2.11), co-morbid tuberculosis (HR; 2.2: 95% CI 1.57–2.96) and male gender (HR; 1.5: 95% CI 1.08–2.00) were significantly predictive of mortality. Categorising the patients based on use of Tenofovir, HBV infection failed to become a predictor of mortality among those on Tenofovir-containing HAART. Conclusions HBsAg-positive status was associated with reduced survival and was an independent predictor of mortality in this African HIV cohort on HAART. However, Tenofovir annulled the impact of HBV on mortality of HIV patients in the present study cohort.
    Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 06/2013; S3: 006. DOI:10.4172/2155-6113.S3-006 · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are major public health challenges in the developing world especially sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection among children infected with HIV. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Paediatric HIV Clinic, UNTH, Enugu between July and December 2009. Antibodies to HCV were analyzed by newer generation rapid chromatographic immunoassay method using the Chromatest one step HCV test kit. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 statistical software. The chi squared test was used to test for significant association of categorical variables. A p-value of <0.05 was accepted as significant. One hundred and eighteen children HIV-infected children, aged between eighteen months to fifteen years were included in the data analysis. Eight of the HIV infected subjects were positive for HCV, giving an HIV-HCV co-infection prevalence of 6.8%. Co-infection was more prevalent among males and in those in age group 11-15 years. Blood transfusion, irrespective of frequency (p<0.015), and injections for immunization (p<0.049) were the significant risk factors noted. There is need for strengthening of existing preventive strategies against HCV and HIV infections such as screening of donor blood and safe injection practices in our locality.
    African Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 8(1):5-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Perinatal and horizontal transmission of Hepatitis B occur in areas of high endemicity as most infections are acquired in the first 5 years of life. Unless Hepatitis B and C infected pregnant women identified, and appropriate treatment provided, children born to these women are at high risk of chronic Hepatitis B (and C) virus infection. The objecive of this study was to determined the prevalence and the factors associated with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. Methods: A cross sectional study among HIV Positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were screened for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection at enrollment. HIV viral load, CD4 count, liver transaminases and hemoglobin levels were also determined. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution?s Ethical Review Board. Results: Of the 2391 studied subjects, 101(4.2%) and 37(1.5%) respectively were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection. Twowomen (0. 08%) had triple infections. blood transfusion, (cOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.1 - 4.6), history of induced abortion (cOR:2. 2;95% CI:1.3 - 3.6), and elevated baseline ALT (cOR:2. 2; 95%CI:2. 2;4.2) were significantly associated with HBV. History of induced abortion was the only factor found to be associated with HIV/ HCV (cOR: 1.9;95%CI:1. 3-3.9). Conclusion: Hepatitis B Virus infection (4.2%) is relatively common in our environment and associated with induced abortion, blood transfusion and elevated baseline transaminase. Hepatitis C Virus infection (1.5%) is less common and associated with only history of induced abortion.
    Pan-African journal 03/2014; 17:197. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2014.17.197.2310