Hepatitis B and C virus infection in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV patients and evaluate the risk of infection compared with HIV negative control subjects.
This is a prospective case control study in which 240 HIV/AIDS patients and age and sex matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of HIV infection was based on a positive HIV screening test using Capillus test kits (Trinity Biotech PLC, Ireland) and confirmed using Western blot assay. HBsAg and anti-HCV were assayed by commercially available chromatographic immunoassay (SD BIOLINE).
Eleven (9.2%) of the 120 HIV/AIDS patients and 8 (7%) of the 120 control subjects were positive for the HBsAg (OR=1, p=0.27). HBeAg was detected in 3 of the 11 (27.3%) subjects with HIV/HBV co infections. HIV positive patients were 7 times more likely to have HCV infection than control patients (5.8% compared with 0.8%, OR=7.3, p= 0.03).
The lack of a strong association between HBV and HIV infection may be related to different exposure routes in this population where HBV infection is highly endemic and childhood infection almost universal. In this African population, HIV infection may be a super-infection of HBV infections contracted in childhood. This high HCV/HIV co-infection rate is consistent with the shared parenteral and sexual routes of transmission.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The co-existence of viral hepatitis caused by HBV and HCV become common causes of severe liver complication and immunological impairment among HIV infected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and their correlation with CD4 and liver enzyme levels among HAART naive HIV positive individuals. METHOD: A Cross-sectional study was conducted from March-May, 2011 at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. HBV and HCV serological tests and liver enzymes as well as CD4 T cell level determination were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using structured questionnaire. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Result: Among 400 study participants, the overall prevalence of HIV-viral hepatitis co-infection was 42(11.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections were 20(5.6%), 18(5.0%) and 4 (1.1%) respectively. Study participants who had HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infection have relatively raised mean liver enzyme levels (ALT, AST and ALP) than HIV mono-infected once. Individuals with HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infection also had a lower mean CD4 levels than HIV mono-infected study participants. The mean CD4 value in males was lower than females. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV and HCV was higher than reports from general population of the country. Raised levels of liver enzymes and lowered mean CD4 counts were seen in HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections. These findings underscore the importance of screening all HIV positive individuals before initiating antiretroviral treatment.Virology Journal 05/2013; 10(1):171. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals are growing worldwide health problems characterized by lack of effective vaccines, need for expensive treatment, chronicity of morbidity and associated mortality. Their prevalence and distribution patterns continue to vary across geographical locations with high prevalence being detected among high risk populations. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 infected individuals, blood samples were collected from consenting study subjects visiting comprehensive HIV clinics in Nairobi during the period between October and December 2009. Blood samples from volunteers were screened with ELISA tests for detecting HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. In a total of three (300) hundred infected individuals consisting of 129 (43%) males and 171 (57%) females 15.3% (46/300) were HIV-1 co-infected with either HBV or HCV or both, 10.3% (31/300) with HIV-1 and HCV and 6% (18/300) with HIV-1 and HBV infections. However, only three individuals (1%) were coinfected with the three viruses (HIV/HBV/HCV). Though, low levels of co-infection with all three viruses were reported, there could be higher prevalence rates than reported here especially among high risk populations.BMC Research Notes 09/2013; 6(1):363.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the rates and impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections on response to long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population in Nigeria. HBV and HCV as well as HIV infections are endemic in sub Saharan Africa. This was a retrospective cohort study of 19 408 adults who were recruited between June 2004 and December 2010 in the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria in Nigeria programme at Jos University Teaching Hospital. Serological assays, including HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody were used to categorise hepatitis status of the patients. HBsAg was determined using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Monolisa HBsAg Ultra3; Bio-Rad). HCV antibody was tested using third generation EIA (DIA.PRO Diagnostic, Bioprobes srl, Milan, Italy). HIV RNA levels were measured using Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 monitor test version 1.5 (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) with a detection limit of 400 copies/mL. Flow cytometry was used to determine CD4+ cell count (Partec, GmbH Munster, Germany). Comparison of categorical and continuous variables were achieved using Pearson's χ(2) and Kruskal Wallis tests respectively, on MedCalc for Windows, version 220.127.116.11 (MedCalc Software, Mariakerke, Belgium). With an overall hepatitis screening rate of over 90% for each virus; HBV, HCV and HBV/HCV were detected in 3162 (17.8%), 1983 (11.3%) and 453 (2.5%) HIV infected adults respectively. The rate of liver disease was low, but highest among HIV mono-infected patients (29, 0.11%), followed by HBV co-infected patients (15, 0.08%). Patients with HBV co-infection and triple infection had higher log10 HIV RNA loads (HBV: 4.6 copies/mL vs HIV only: 4.5 copies/mL, P < 0.0001) and more severe immune suppression (HBV: 645, 55.4%; HBV/HCV: 97, 56.7%) prior to initiation of HAART compared to HIV mono-infected patients (1852, 48.6%) (P < 0.0001). Of 3025 patients who were 4.4 years on HAART and whose CD4 cell counts results at baseline and end of follow up were available for analyses, CD4 increase was significantly lower in those with HBV co-infection (HBV: 144 cells/mm(3); HBV/HCV: 105 cells/mm(3)) than in those with HCV co-infection (165 cells/mm(3)) and HIV mono-infection (150 cells/mm(3)) (P = 0.0008). High rates of HBV and HCV infections were found in this HIV cohort. CD4 recovery was significantly diminished in patients with HBV co-infection.World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; 19(10):1602-10. · 2.55 Impact Factor