Coxsackievirus B3 modulates cell death by downregulating activating transcription factor 3 in HeLa cells.
ABSTRACT Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is an early-induced gene involved in diverse cellular functions in response to various stresses including viral infection. Here we observed marked reduction of ATF3 by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection and investigated the regulation and functional role of ATF3 in HeLa cells for the understanding of biological significance of ATF3 downregulation. CVB3 infection markedly reduced ATF3 expression at mRNA and protein levels in parallel with p53 degradation, and preservation of p53 expression rescued CVB3 infection-induced ATF3 downregulation. ATF3 overexpression stimulated apoptotic cell death following CVB3 infection, accompanying with augmentation of CVB3 infection-induced eIF2alpha phosphorylation. However, ATF3 overexpression did not affect viral protein production but promoted virus progeny release. Taken together, our results suggest that ATF3 is under control of p53 in part and that the ATF3 downregulation via p53 degradation may contribute to effective viral production as a modulation mechanism of CVB3 infection-induced cell death.
- SourceAvailable from: Agripina C Suarez[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) during viral infection has gained much recent attention. Our laboratory reported on an important regulatory role for extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), subfamily members of the MAPKs, during coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. However, the role of the PI3K pathway in CVB3 infection has not been well characterized. CVB3 is the most common known viral infectant of heart muscle that directly injures and kills infected cardiac myocytes during the myocarditic process. In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase B (PKB) (also known as Akt), a general downstream mediator of survival signals through the PI3K cascade, in regulating CVB3 replication and virus-induced apoptosis in a well-established HeLa cell model. We have demonstrated that CVB3 infection leads to phosphorylation of PKB/Akt on both Ser-473 and Thr-308 residues through a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Transfection of HeLa cells with a dominant negative mutant of Akt1 or pretreatment of wild-type HeLa cells with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppresses viral RNA expression, as reflected in diminished viral capsid protein expression and viral release. Dominant negative Akt1 and LY294002 also increase apoptosis in infected cells, which can be reversed by addition of the general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk). Interestingly, blocking of apoptosis by zVAD.fmk does not reverse the viral RNA translation blockade, indicating that the inhibitory effect of dominant negative Akt1 on viral protein expression is not caspase dependent. In addition, we showed that the attachment of virus to its receptor-coreceptor complex is not sufficient for PKB/Akt activation and that postentry viral replication is required for Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, these data illustrate a new and imperative role for Akt in CVB3 infection in HeLa cells and show that the PI3K/Akt signaling is beneficial to CVB3 replication.Journal of Virology 05/2004; 78(8):4289-98. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), consisting of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), are activated upon various environmental stimuli, including viral infections. Cellular survival and death signaling events following coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection have been studied in relationship to viral replication, but the role of SAPKs has not been scrutinized. In this study, we found that the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK was increased during active replication of CVB3 and that their phosphorylation was independent of CVB3-induced caspase activation or production of reactive oxygen species. The roles of these kinases in CVB3 infection were further evaluated using specific inhibitors: SP600125 for JNK1/2 and SB203580 for p38 MAPK. JNK1/2 inhibitors reduced CVB3-induced phosphorylation of activating transcription factor 2, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor reduced CVB3-induced phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27. Although inhibition of these kinases by specific inhibitors did not affect CVB3 viral protein synthesis, inhibition of p38 MAPK but not of JNK1/2 resulted in significant reduction of viral progeny release, suppression of CVB3-induced cell death, and blockage of CVB3-induced caspase-3 activation in infected cells. We conclude that SAPK pathways play critical roles in the life cycle of CVB3, particularly in viral progeny release.Journal of Virology 12/2005; 79(22):13875-81. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus group B3 (CVB3) replication is influenced by host cell cycle status. However, the effect of CVB3 infection on cell cycle regulation and the mechanisms involved are not precisely defined. In this study, we examined cell cycle progression and regulation when the infection was initiated in late G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Analysis of cellular DNA synthesis in infected cells by thymidine incorporation assays showed a significant reduction in [(3)H]thymidine uptake compared to that of sham-infected cells. To further clarify the effects of CVB3 on the host cell cycle, we examined the cell cycle regulatory proteins involved in G(1) progression and G(1)/S transition. Infection resulted in dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and reduced G(1) cyclin-dependent kinase activities, accompanied by decreased levels of G(1) cyclin protein expression (cyclin D1 and cyclin E). We further investigated the mechanisms by which CVB3 infection down-regulates cyclin D1 expression. Northern blotting showed that cyclin D1 mRNA levels were modestly increased following CVB3 infection, suggesting that cyclin D1 regulation occurs by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Viral infection resulted in only a 20 to 30% inhibition of cyclin D1 protein synthesis 3 h postinfection. However, the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin prevent CVB3-induced cyclin D1 reduction, indicating that CVB3-induced down-regulation of cyclin D1 is facilitated by ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis. Finally, using GSK3beta pathway inhibitors, we showed that the reduction of cyclin D1 is GSK3beta independent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CVB3 infection disrupts host cell homeostasis by blocking the cell cycle at the G(1)/S boundary and induces cell cycle arrest in part through an increase in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cyclin D1.Journal of Virology 02/2003; 77(1):1-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor