Synthesis of tetra-ortho-substituted, phosphorus-containing and carbonyl-containing biaryls utilizing a Diels-Alder approach.
ABSTRACT The application of the Diels-Alder approach to biaryls (DAB) is described for the synthesis of tetra-ortho-substituted biaryl compounds containing orthogonally functionalized substituents. The syntheses of phosphorus-containing, disubstituted alkynes and carbonyl-containing, disubstituted alkynes were accomplished in two to three steps from commercially available reagents. Subsequent Diels-Alder cycloadditions with a range of oxygenated dienes yielded the target biaryls. Further functionalization through palladium-couplings is demonstrated on the phosphorus-containing biaryls. In addition, selective manipulation of each of the remaining ortho substituents on the phosphorus-containing biaryls is demonstrated. One of these phosphorus-containing derivatives is utilized as a highly active catalyst for Suzuki coupling. For the carbonyl-containing series, a wide range of dienophile substituents were screened including esters, ketones, and amides. The key Diels-Alder cycloadditions proceeded smoothly with the commercially available 1-methoxy-1,3-cyclohexadiene to yield the resultant tetra-ortho-substituted biaryls with excellent regioselectivity. The scope of the cycloaddition process was also explored on the carbonyl-containing dienophiles with a series of cyclic dienes. Acyclic dienes were also screened; however, they did not prove effective in the Diels-Alder process with the carbonyl-containing acetylenes. The ability to isolate enantiomerically pure biaryl atropisomers using a benzyl oxazolidinone is disclosed. Finally, the subsequent conversion to an axially chiral anilino alcohol is also reported.