Testicular microlithiasis: prevalence and risk of concurrent and interval development of testicular tumor in a referred population.
ABSTRACT To identify prevalence of testicular microlithiasis on ultrasound in a referred population and risk of concurrent and interval testicular tumor development.
Retrospective review of our radiology database revealed 4363 scrotal ultrasounds were performed over a six-year period. Ultrasound findings were correlated with our hospital pathological database. The association of intratesticular microlithiasis and confirmed testicular cancers were assessed by means of a Fisher exact test.
Testicular microlithiasis was identified in 32 of the 4259 patients (0.75% of screened population). In the same time period 83 testicular tumors were identified on initial scanning (2.00% of screened population). Three patients with tumor had coexisting microlithiasis (9.4% incidence), whilst a further two had interval development of tumor. The follow-up of the microlithiasis patients ranged from 3 to 72 months (mean 33.9 months, median 40 months).
Interval development of testicular tumor is a documented phenomenon. As the incidence in detection of microlithiasis increases secondary to advances in ultrasound technology, follow-up becomes financially prohibitive. We advocate regular self-examination as the primary follow-up of otherwise well patients with testicular microlithiasis.
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ABSTRACT: Light and electron microscopic studies were done on microliths in unilateral undescended testes to determine the origin and structure. The microliths seem to originate from degenerating intratubular cells and consist of a central calcified core surrounded by concentric layers of connective fibers.The Journal of Urology 08/1980; 124(1):105-7. · 3.70 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Urology 03/1996; 155(2):648. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of testicular microlithiasis in men presenting for testicular ultrasonography, to identify any associated pathology (with particular reference to testicular neoplasia) and to report the follow-up of those patients in whom testicular microlithiasis was identified. In this retrospective study, the results of all testicular ultrasonography undertaken between July 1995 and March 1998 in a district general hospital were reviewed. The records of all patients diagnosed ultrasonographically to have testicular microlithiasis were retrieved and the pathology database was accessed for all testicular tumours diagnosed in the same period. During the study period 2215 scans were taken; 34 cases of testicular microlithiasis were identified, giving an incidence of 1.4%. Thirty-one testicular tumours were removed during the same period. Of the 34 cases with testicular microlithiasis, five had histologically confirmed testicular tumours (15%). The incidence of testicular tumours in the scans showing no microlithiasis was 26 in 2181 (1.1%). The differential incidence of tumours in the two groups is statistically significant (P < 0.001, chi-square analysis). Patients with testicular microlithiasis but no tumour were followed up for a median (range) of 41 (19-54) months; no interval tumours have developed to date. This study confirms an incidence of testicular microlithiasis comparable with that in other reported series, albeit in a selected population. There was a strong association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular tumours. Whether this is a causal relationship has yet to be determined. Careful clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up of these patients is therefore recommended until the significance of testicular microlithiasis is clear.BJU International 09/2000; 86(4):482-5. · 3.05 Impact Factor