Article

Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.64). 09/2007; 308(2):421-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.05.037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Msx1 and Msx2 are highly conserved, Nk-related homeodomain transcription factors that are essential for a variety of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate organogenesis. Here we show that combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause conotruncal anomalies associated with malalignment of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Msx1 and Msx2 play dual roles in outflow tract morphogenesis by both protecting secondary heart field (SHF) precursors against apoptosis and inhibiting excessive proliferation of cardiac neural crest, endothelial and myocardial cells in the conotruncal cushions. During incorporation of SHF precursors into the OFT myocardium, ectopic apoptosis in the Msx1-/-; Msx2-/- mutant SHF is associated with reduced expression of Hand1 and Hand2, which from work on Hand1 and Hand2 mutants may be functionally important in the inhibition of apoptosis in Msx1/2 mutants. Later during aorticopulmonary septation, excessive proliferation in the OFT cushion mesenchyme and myocardium of Msx1-/-; Msx2-/- mutants is associated with premature down-regulation of p27(KIP1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Diminished accretion of SHF precursors to the elongating OFT myocardium and excessive accumulation of mesenchymal cells in the conotruncal cushions may work together to perturb the rotation of the truncus arteriosus, leading to OFT malalignment defects including double-outlet right ventricle, overriding aorta and pulmonary stenosis.

0 Followers
 · 
76 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tissue engineered heart valves offer a promising alternative for the replacement of diseased heart valves avoiding the limitations faced with currently available bioprosthetic and mechanical heart valves. In the paradigm of tissue engineering, a three-dimensional platform - the so-called scaffold - is essential for cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation as well as the ultimate generation of a functional tissue. A foundation for success in heart valve tissue engineering is recapitulation of the complex design and diverse mechanical properties of a native valve. This article reviews technological details of the scaffolds that have been applied to date in heart valve tissue engineering research.
    Acta biomaterialia 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2014.03.014 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.
    Development 07/2011; 138(14):3055-66. DOI:10.1242/dev.063214 · 6.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Notch pathway is crucial for a wide variety of developmental processes including the formation of tissue boundaries. That it may function in calvarial suture development and figure in the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis was suggested by the demonstration that heterozygous loss of function of JAGGED1 in humans can cause Alagille syndrome, which has craniosynostosis as a feature. We used conditional gene targeting to examine the role of Jagged1 in the development of the skull vault. We demonstrate that Jagged1 is expressed in a layer of mesoderm-derived sutural cells that lie along the osteogenic-non-osteogenic boundary. We show that inactivation of Jagged1 in the mesodermal compartment of the coronal suture, but not in the neural crest compartment, results in craniosynostosis. Mesodermal inactivation of Jagged1 also results in changes in the identity of sutural cells prior to overt osteogenic differentiation, as well as defects in the boundary between osteogenic and non-osteogenic compartments at the coronal suture. These changes, surprisingly, are associated with increased expression of Notch2 and the Notch effector, Hes1, in the sutural mesenchyme. They are also associated with an increase in nuclear β-catenin. In Twist1 mutants, Jagged1 expression in the suture is reduced substantially, suggesting an epistatic relationship between Twist1 and Jagged1. Consistent with such a relationship, Twist1-Jagged1 double heterozygotes exhibit a substantial increase in the severity of craniosynostosis over individual heterozygotes. Our results thus suggest that Jagged1 is an effector of Twist1 in coronal suture development.
    Developmental Biology 11/2010; 347(2):258-70. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.08.010 · 3.64 Impact Factor