The prevalence of night eating syndrome (NES), binge eating disorder (BED), and bulimia nervosa (BN) and the general experience of food cravings were examined in 88 obese urban African American women.
Participants were administered The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-R, the Night Eating Syndrome Questionnaire, and the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, Trait version (FCQ-T).
Twenty-eight percent reported symptoms of eating disorders (18.9% NES, 6.4% recurrent binge eating, 2.2% both NES and recurrent binge eating). Those reporting disordered eating had significantly higher total FCQ-T scores than those not reporting disordered eating. Persons endorsing recurrent binge eating had the highest mean score, followed by those reporting NES. Those who identified themselves as binge eaters and night eaters were not significantly different from each other, but both groups were significantly different than the no eating disorder symptoms group on various subscales of the FCQ-T.
Obese African American women report significant levels of NES and binge eating which may contribute to the development and/ or maintenance of obesity.
"ics of patients ( e . g . , BMI ) or treatments . Our sample could be considered composed of patients at moderate risk of FC . In fact , mean score on the FCQ – T in our sample ( M = 111 . 5 , SD = 36 . 8 ) was lower than that reported by obese women with binge eating disorder or bulimia ( M = 137 . 6 , SD = 40 . 2 , Cohen ' s d = 0 . 71 , n = 7 ; Jarosz et al . , 2007 ) , and normal - weight university students with food addiction ( M = 147 . 1 , SD = 34 . 5 , Cohen ' s d = 0 . 97 , n = 48 ; Meule & Kubler , 2012 ) . It was comparable to that reported by obese women with night eating syndrome ("
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food craving (FC) might play an important role in the course of eating disorders and obesity. The question of its measurement has particular importance in relation to the dramatic growth in obesity rates and its relevance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) in overweight and obese patients who were attending weight loss programs, and its efficiency in discriminating patients with binge eating. Participants were 497 (411 women, 86 men) overweight and obese patients in treatment with low-energy diet therapy. We used structural equation modeling to compare 3 factor models tested in previous studies (a 6-factor model, an 8-factor model, and a 9-factor model), which indicated that the 9-factor model has a better fit over the competing models. The FCQ-T had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of .96 for the total score, and between .76 and .92 for subfactors), and was able to discriminate patients with clinical-level binge eating from those with probable and without binge eating with an efficiency of .74 (sensitivity = .64, specificity = .78). FCQ-T scores were sensitive to changes associated with treatment only for patients who started dietary restriction between the baseline and the follow-up assessment, but not for patients who were already observing dietary restrictions at the time of the baseline assessment. These results suggest that the FCQ-T could be a potentially useful measure for the screening of binge eating problems in overweight and obese patients while in treatment.
"It was hypothesized that higher levels of depression and anxiety would be associated with higher scores on the FCQ-T, particularly on the subscales associated with emotions ('anticipation of positive reinforcement that may result from eating,' 'anticipation of relief from negative states and feelings as a result of eating,' 'emotions that may be experienced before or during food cravings or eating,' and 'guilt from cravings and/or giving in to them'). It was also hypothesized that higher scores on the FCQ-T and its subscales would be related to more problematic eating behavior (consistent with the past research by Jarosz et al., 2007). Finally, the present study sought to investigate the predictive ability of the FCQ-T by assessing the relationship between pre-surgical FCQ-T scores and weight loss outcomes at six months post-surgery. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food cravings have been understudied in bariatric surgery patients and the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait has not been validated in this population. Reliability and validity of the FCQ-T were examined and a regression analysis was run to determine whether or not preoperative scores on individual subscales of the instrument could predict weight loss at 6months. The FCQ-T demonstrated excellent internal consistency in bariatric surgery-seeking patients, and individual subscales measuring emotion and mood were correlated with other measures of depression and anxiety. Endorsement of binge eating or emotional eating behaviors during a clinical interview was correlated with similar subscales on the FCQ-T. Higher scores on the subscale 'cues that may trigger food cravings' were associated with greater weight loss at 6months post-surgery and higher scores on the subscale 'guilt from cravings and/or giving into them' was associated with less weight loss. Management of external cues may predict successful outcomes while emotional impact of cravings may indicate the need for further intervention to help manage specific food craving traits.
"Although both BED and NES seem to share the common feature of hyperphagia, they differ with respect to the amount of ingested food during episodes of hyperphagia (NES individuals consume less food than BED individuals; Allison et al., 2005), and regarding self-reported nocturnal anxiety which only occurs in persons with NES (Sassaroli et al., 2009). Recent studies reported further overlap of NES with other syndromes, for example Bulimia nervosa (BN; Tzischinsky and Latzer, 2004; Jarosz et al., 2007; Lundgren et al., 2011) and Anorexia nervosa (AN; Lundgren et al., 2011). With respect to eating disorder pathology, findings remain mixed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed.
Psychiatry Research 08/2012; 200(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.07.028 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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