Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anger, and Partner Abuse Among Vietnam Combat Veterans
ABSTRACT The authors examined interrelationships among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, anger, and partner abuse perpetration among a sample of 60 combat veterans. Compared with PTSD-negative participants, PTSD-positive participants reported higher state anger across time and neutral and trauma prime conditions and higher anger reactivity during the trauma prime condition. PTSD-positive participants also exhibited more anger reactivity during the trauma prime than during the neutral condition. The same pattern of results was not found for anxiety reactivity during trauma memory activation. PTSD symptoms were associated with physical assault and psychological aggression perpetration, and trait anger mediated these relationships. Findings indicate a heightened anger response among PTSD-positive veterans and suggest the salience of dispositional components of anger in abuse perpetration in this population.
- SourceAvailable from: Gertrud Sofie Hafstad
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- " instead become more fearless , exhibiting more reckless and high - risk behavior that can carry serious consequence . For example , reckless behavior has been reported at a much higher frequency among Israeli adolescents who are repeatedly exposed to life - threatening circumstances ( Pat - Horenczyk et al . , 2007 ) , and among combat veterans ( Taft et al . , 2007a , 2007b ) as compared with this study . The findings also suggest that this symptom needs to be studied over a longer time course as the interactions of reactivity to reminders and high levels of arousal may increase its frequency over time and may depend on the use of multiple informants rather than self - report , especially among ado"
ABSTRACT: Background: Diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been revised for DSM-5. Two key changes include alteration of the clustering of PTSD symptoms and new PTSD symptom criteria related to negative alterations in cognition and mood. In this study, we empirically investigated these changes. Methods: We interviewed 32.5 adolescents and young adults who survived the 2011 youth camp shooting at Utoya Island, Norway, The UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV was used to assess symptoms of PTSD. In addition, 11 questions were added to assess the four new symptom criteria withiin the new DSM-5 symptom categories. Results: PTSD prevalence did nor differ significantly whether DSM-IV (11.1%) or DSM-5 (11.7%) criteria were used and he Cohen's Kappa for consistency between the diagnoses was 0.061. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the four-factor structure of the DSM-5 fir the data adequately according to the conceptual model outlined. Limitations: The homogeneity of this sample of highly exposed subjects may preclude generalization to less severely exposed groups. Also, we did not assess criterion G in regard to symptoms causing clinically significant distress and functional impairment. Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD was quite similar regardless of diagnostic system. The relatively low concordance between the diagnoses has implications for eligibility for a diagnosis of PTSD.Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2014; 169C:40-46. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.055 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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- "Additional detail for all included studies, including outcomes and quality appraisal scores are reported by disorder in the supplementary material. Ten studies were conducted in non-clinical settings (Swanson et al. 1990; Kessler et al. 1994, 2005; Danielson et al. 1998; Fergusson et al. 2005; Taft et al. 2007; O'Leary et al. 2008; McManus et al. 2009; Gass et al. 2011), six in clinical settings (Parrott et al. 2003; Najavits et al. 2004; Grant & Kaplan, 2005; Taft et al. 2009, 2010; Friedman et al. 2011; Yang et al. 2012) and one was in both clinical and non-clinical settings (Sippel & Marshall, 2011). Thirteen studies were categorized as high quality. "
ABSTRACT: Backgrounds. The extent to which psychiatric disorders are associated with an increased risk of violence to partners is unclear. This review aimed to establish risk of violence against partners among men and women with diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of eleven electronic databases were supplemented by hand searching, reference screening and citation tracking of included articles, and expert recommendations. Results. Seventeen studies were included, reporting on 72 585 participants, but only three reported on past year violence. Pooled risk estimates could not be calculated for past year violence against a partner and the three studies did not consistently report increased risk for any diagnosis. Pooled estimates showed an increased risk of having ever been physically violent towards a partner among men with depression (odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.5-3.3), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.4) and panic disorder (OR 2.5, 95% CI C% 1.7-3.6). Increased risk was also found among women with depression (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.1-2.8), GAD (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0) and panic disorder (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5). Conclusions. Psychiatric disorders are associated with high prevalence and increased odds of having ever been physically violent against a partner. As history of violence is a predictor of current violence, mental health professionals should ask about previous partner violence when assessing risk.Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 08/2013; 23(04):1-16. DOI:10.1017/S2045796013000450 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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- "The increased association between military rank and aggressive behaviors among junior enlisted soldiers may be a product of an increased number of combat experiences among junior enlisted soldiers, though this has not been previously reported, or this association may be related to the younger age of the majority of junior enlisted soldiers. While the focus of the current study was on any overt actions of physical aggression, the majority of literature to date focused on aggression within military populations has examined intimate partner violence [Heymen et al, 1999; Newby et al., 2005; Bell et al., 2006; Taft et al., 2007; Slep et al., 2010]. Within this population, as would be expected, soldiers who reported having had a physical altercation with a significant other also reported significantly more minor and severe physically aggressive actions, after adjusting for all other factors associated with physical aggression . "
ABSTRACT: There are a growing number of studies that have approximated levels of aggression and associated outcomes among combat veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using brief screening assessments. However, further research to evaluate the relative role of combat exposures and overt physical behaviors is required to further elucidate potential associations between military service, combat deployment, and overt physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported physical aggression in a sample of US Army soldiers using an adaptation of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and examine factors associated with higher levels of aggression. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted at a single US Army Installation within a sample of active duty US Army soldiers (n = 6,128) from two large units. Anonymous surveys were collected 6 months following deployment to measure overt aggressive behaviors, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, traumatic brain injury, and misuse of alcohol. There were a relatively higher number of minor and severe physical overt aggressive actions reported among soldiers who previously deployed, notably highest among deployed soldiers reporting the highest levels of combat intensity. Soldiers screening positive for the misuse of alcohol were also significantly more likely to report relatively higher levels of physical aggression. This study quantified overt aggressive behaviors and associated factors, showing increasing combat exposures may result in increased physical aggression. Clinicians treating service members returning from combat may consider assessing relative levels of combat.Aggressive Behavior 09/2012; 38(5):357-67. DOI:10.1002/ab.21436 · 2.28 Impact Factor