Effects of accessory proteins on the bypass of a cis-syn thymine-thymine dimer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.19). 08/2007; 46(30):8888-96. DOI: 10.1021/bi700234t
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Among several hypotheses to explain how translesion synthesis (TLS) by DNA polymerase eta (pol eta) suppresses ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis in vivo despite the fact that pol eta copies DNA with low fidelity, here we test whether replication accessory proteins enhance the fidelity of TLS by pol eta. We first show that the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the sliding clamp PCNA, and the clamp loader RFC slightly increase the processivity of yeast pol eta and its ability to recycle to new template primers. However, these increases are small, and they are similar when copying an undamaged template and a template containing a cis-syn TT dimer. Consequently, the accessory proteins do not strongly stimulate the already robust TT dimer bypass efficiency of pol eta. We then perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast pol eta fidelity. We show that it is much less accurate than other yeast DNA polymerases and that the accessory proteins have little effect on fidelity when copying undamaged templates or when bypassing a TT dimer. Thus, although accessory proteins clearly participate in pol eta functions in vivo, they do not appear to help suppress UV mutagenesis by improving pol eta bypass fidelity per se.

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    ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase η (pol η) plays a critical role in suppressing mutations caused by the bypass of cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) that escape repair. There is evidence this is also the case for the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG). Both of these lesions cause moderate to severe blockage of synthesis when encountered by replicative polymerases, while pol η displays little no to pausing during translesion synthesis. However, since lesion bypass does not remove damaged DNA from the genome and can possibly be accompanied by errors in synthesis during bypass, the process is often called 'damage tolerance' to delineate it from classical DNA repair pathways. The fidelity of lesion bypass is therefore of importance when determining how pol η suppresses mutations after DNA damage. As pol η has been implicated in numerous in vivo pathways other than lesion bypass, we wanted to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the relatively low-fidelity synthesis displayed by pol η. To that end, we have created a set of mutant pol η proteins each containing a single amino acid substitution in the active site and closely surrounding regions. We determined overall DNA synthesis ability as well as the efficiency and fidelity of bypass of thymine-thymine CPD (T-T CPD) and 8-oxoG containing DNA templates. Our results show that several amino acids are critical for normal polymerase function, with changes in overall activity and fidelity being observed. Of the mutants that retain polymerase activity, we demonstrate that amino acids Q38, Y52, and R61 play key roles in determining polymerase fidelity, with substation of alanine causing both increases and decreases in fidelity. Remarkably, the Q38A mutant displays increased fidelity during synthesis opposite 8-oxoG but decreased fidelity during synthesis opposite a T-T CPD.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 03/2013; 745. DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2013.03.001 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase η (pol η) synthesizes across from damaged DNA templates in order to prevent deleterious consequences like replication fork collapse and double-strand breaks. This process, termed translesion synthesis (TLS), is an overall positive for the cell, as cells deficient in pol η display higher mutation rates. This outcome occurs despite the fact that the in vitro fidelity of bypass by pol η alone is moderate to low, depending on the lesion being copied. One possible means of increasing the fidelity of pol η is interaction with replication accessory proteins present at the replication fork. We have previously utilized a bacteriophage based screening system to measure the fidelity of bypass using purified proteins. Here we report on the fidelity effects of a single stranded binding protein, replication protein A (RPA), when copying the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine(8-oxoG) and the UV-induced cis-syn thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (T-T CPD). We observed no change in fidelity dependent on RPA when copying these damaged templates. This result is consistent in multiple position contexts. We previously identified single amino acid substitution mutants of pol η that have specific effects on fidelity when copying both damaged and undamaged templates. In order to confirm our results, we examined the Q38A and Y52E mutants in the same full-length construct. We again observed no difference when RPA was added to the bypass reaction, with the mutant forms of pol η displaying similar fidelity regardless of RPA status. We do, however, observe some slight effects when copying undamaged DNA, similar to those we have described previously. Our results indicate that RPA by itself does not affect pol η dependent lesion bypass fidelity when copying either 8-oxoG or T-T CPD lesions.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97382. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097382 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 01/2008; 82:101-145. · 0.31 Impact Factor


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